Колонка редактора - Eng
Рубрика: Технологии и организация строительного производства. Ресурсосбережение
A brief description of the innovative method of removing high-rise steel buildings. Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the method Cut And Take Down.
SPECIFICITY AND FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF THE DEVICE OF THE BASES OF ROADS FROM THE LOCAL GROUND STRENGTHENED OF SLAG ALKALINE COHESIVE MATERIAL
R.O. Botalov, A.V. Chazov
Experimental researches have shown, that local grouds strengthened of slag alkaline cohesive material in the bases of roads, type necessary durability even during the autumn-winter period
Valiewa L.N.,Ponomarev A.B.
This article discusses the variety of tunnels, the need for protection of tunnels from moisture. The article explores the main kinds of waterproofing of tunnels and the technology of their device.
A.S. Vorob’eva, T.M. Bochkareva
This article demonstrates technological peculiarities of erection of several the highest modern skyscrapers and perspectives of developing this kind of building.
UDK: 349.4 (075.8)
Gordevich E.V., Petreneva O.V.
In the present work we give a brief insight into the history of legislation on town-planning activity. The concept and structure of town-planning code of the Russian Federation are considered.
Green roof is the technology, borrowed from the past, but successfully solves the problems of modern cities: saving energy, environmental issues, improving the appearance and increase comfort of the urban environment. Green roofs are very popular in Europe and America. In New York there are more than 8000 homes with green roofs. In Germany there are laws under which many public buildings are obliged to arrange for a green roof. Russia also has examples of such devices roofs and popularity of this technology is growing.
Zubrilina Y.M. Udintsev P.A.
This article will talk about a new building material, marked by his unique use in the construction industry. A comparative analysis of the Green Board of plates as a permanent form with other analog materials and draw appropriate conclusions.
In this article we can see advanced technologies of installation of long span structure , reduction of terms of their construction and originality of the constructive decision.
Kataeva E.S., Petreneva O.V.
The paper presents a considered pricing basis in construction and comparisons of pricing systems in individual countries.
Кelberg K.E., Tarasova A.S.
the history of development of technology of modular construction. Advantages and disadvantages of this technology. The analysis of the use of technologies for building полносборных buildings in the Perm region.
The SIREWALL technology is an advanced method of construction of walls of commercial buildings and houses from the earth which, seemingly, can shortly become worthy alternative to other, less harmless ways applied in the construction industry.
The main postulates necessary for preservation of centralized system of the technical account are described. Possibility of working off of technologies of the accounting of real estate objects with the assistance of several regions is considered.
Currently, there are many new materials that are superior to their classical in performance. To use them effectively you need to know the material characteristics and operating conditions. This article discusses the use of "Profix" liquid rubber as a roof waterproofing material.
E.YU. Nicolaeva, T.M. Bochkareva
Application of modern technologies in building and city arrangement is directly connected with use of technology of the device of green roofs. The choice of type of a roof depends on conditions of operation and climatic factors. Dependences of structure of a roofing pie on appointment of a roof and the loadings influencing it are resulted.
Novikov V. V.
the review of heaters put on designs a dusting or painting. Main characteristics and scopes.
P.N. Noskov, S.I. Vahrushev
Analysis of some patent methods of DPT-pile production has been carried out. Its' features and advantages of all methods have been shown
There are many problems in modern Russian building industry, particularly in walling construction. These problems are caused by poor quality of work produced, on the one hand, and characteristics of materials that have become traditional nowadays, on the other hand. This article is focused on the current problems of walling construction on the territory of CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States). Moreover, a new building material, warm
Vedernikov А.N., Vahrushev S.I.
The actual problem of process control of road construction, characterized by a priori uncertainty, nonlinearity. Formulated the scientific background of complex automation of road construction on the basis of modern scientific and technological progress, the results of scientific research. Results of preliminary studies, using the program Matlab & Simulink system of automatic control the compaction process the working body of the paver by simulation, taking into account the dynamics of a hydraulic actuator. A description of the device with a load cell to automatically control the compaction process of asphalt concrete mixtures.
Illarionov S.O., Vahrushev S.I.
Hydrocylinder’s reliability and durability rising is problem what set a task to improve and increase detail, friction unit, waterproofing compound and hydrocylinder actuator efficiency.
PNEUMATIC-TIRE ROLLER: QUESTIONS OF EFFICIENCY OF SOIL COMPACTION AND RESEARCH OF RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF ITS ADAPTIVE WORKING EQUIPMENT
Isakova E.A., Vakhrushev S.I.
In this article we can see compaction roller. There are results of experimental researches, which test were done for determination of rheological properties of the pneumotire working equipment. Also compaction roller’s adaption of rheological properties towards parameters of compacted soil was estimated. Also there are estimation of coefficient of rigidity and coefficient of viscosity of compaction roller’s working facilities.
Loginova Y.S., Vakhrushev S.I.
The research object is to consider one of various methods of the improving jib self-propelled crane owing to decrease mass of counterbalance. The mobile counterbalance allows decreasing mass of crane but, at the same time, the general dimensions become larger.
RESEARCH OF PRODUCTIVITY OF FACE-TO-FACE WHEEL LOADERS OF A SERIES F OF THE VOLVO COMPANY - L60F, L70F AND L80F
Lopurko E.S., Vakhrushev S.I.
Cargo handling cars play large role in the modern construction. It is impossible to represent development of soil, deforestation, a roadwork and others without loaders. In due time Volvo CE was the first company, which began to advance the concept of a "universal" wheel loader fully embodied in new models. These models can work at limited space, quickly change the hinged equipment. Such requirements are put forward by the world construction industry today. The received ratios of overall dimensions and capacity will allow to pick up the optimum decision to any customer where it maintained a loader - in port or in career, on timber cutting or in a factory warehouse.
Glass - a new kind of building material. It is durable, easy to install and use. At the moment, we often use it to create objects of interior floors and stairs. That is why there are different ways of handling and fixing of glass materials.
Racheva N. S.
The advantages and disadvantages operated roofs, and their views and new technologies in this field are considered in this paper. Particular attention is paid to the layers of roofing system.
The article is devoted to methods of excavation by means of explosion. Blast-hole, borehole, sprung-hole, chamber and slit charges` methods are presented. The technology of trench excavation in rock and explosive tillage of frozen ground is examined.
THE METHOD OF APPROXIMATE DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT CONSUMPTION OF THE BUILDING ON THE INITIAL DESIGN STAGE
Semenova Y.A., Petreneva O.V.
In this article the need to assess the basic operational costs at the design stage, the technique of approximate determination of the heat consumption of the building. Set out the main ways to calculate the heat loss.
Tretyakova P.A., Shutova O.A.
The basic problems of landscaping of domestic territories of mass built houses are considered. The basic approaches to designing road and path network and external illumination are formulated.
Smirnov A.A., Kobyshcha O.E., Botchkaryova T.M.
In the presented publication the urgency of the subject devoted to technology of creation of rolled membranes is described. This subject is worthy, as questions of improvement of quality and durability of roofing coverings get a special urgency and interest now. It is obvious that expenses on repair of all building depend on quality of installation of roofs. Polymeric roofing membranes are a perfect and reliable material for the device of roofs. In article the description of features of roofing membranes, their advantages is given, the structure of a membrane roof and technology of its creation also is given and three main ways of installation of these membranes are described.
THE RESULTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN THE SPHERE OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION, CONSTRUCTION OF HEALTH FACILITIES, THE REPAIR AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS FOR THE YEAR 2011
Valiewa L.N., Petreneva O.V.
In this article contains results of the in housing construction, about the leaders of construction in the city of Perm, the average cost of construction of 1 square meter of total area of apartment houses for the year 2011. The article also considered the results of the construction industry in the field of construction of health facilities, the repair and construction of roads.
Epishin I.E., Koloshina S.V.
In this study information about bored piles and about their components presents. In the present study also examine the types of bored piles used in building and history of their using in different periods of time. In addition, in the study present new technologies of arrangement of bored piles. This topic merits attention, because method of arrangement of bored piles is used often in modern building.
Sokolova V.D., Kaloshina S.V.
In the present study analyses a different types of damp proofing. The object of study is a choice of more effective and more dependable damp proofing. This topic is pressing, because today in our country there is considerable growth of volumes and scales of underground building, during of which it’s necessary to pay a special attention to securing of dependable damp proofing.
Tatyannikov D.A., Petreneva O.V.
In the present discussed briefly presents the entire cycle of tenders, also described the essence and purpose of the competitive selection in the construction. The analysis of the situation on the market, identified the advantages and disadvantages, and suggests some options for improving the system of contract bidding.
Khlopina A.P., Petreneva O.V.
In the considered job the kinds of a competition in building sphere and it examples are submitted, as the rating of diligent organizations on 2011 is submitted. The analysis of an existing situation in the market Is carried spent, the priorities of the consumers of the given market, and as awareness and relation of the population to advertising in building branch are revealed.
Ahunova O.V., Vakhrushev S.I.
A brief description of the principles of the bulldozer with vintoshnekovym intensifiers, methods for determining the power consumption of the intensifier, the characteristics of the working process of digging the soil. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various embodiment of the bulldozers used to backfill the trenches with soil.
INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF THE PIPELINE REPAIR TRENCHLESS POLYMER COMPOSITE COVERINGS
the technique of determination of productivity of a complex of the equipment for trenchless repair of pipelines by way of drawing of composite coverings is offered at drawing of the combined sleeve taking into account influence of the main design and technological features. Reserves of increase of productivity at the expense of combination of performance of a number of operations, the accounting of characteristics of a covering and other factors are defined.
Nicolaeva E.Y., Vakhrushev S.I.
Application of modern technologies in a travelling and building production is directly related to the single-bucket mini-power-shovels. The type selection of power-shovel depends on the productivity in the set external environments. Dependences over of the technical productivity are brought on the capacity of scoop during work on soils of different categories.
Novikov V.V., Vakhrushev S.I.
One of ways of increase of productivity of digging and transport cars improvement of a design of their workers of bodies for the purpose of decrease in resistance of soil to digging. Features of the working process which is carried out by the bulldozer, cutting of soil and separation of shaving from its massif with various physicomechanical properties are. Development of soil by the working body having adaptive properties is more effective.
Nosenkov E.P., Vakhrushev S.I.
Building of different objects is related to fulfilling works of zero cycle, digging ditches and trenches, removing old foundations and structures. For these purposes bucket of active use is applied. It differs from usual bucket by the presence of percussion cogs which are put into operation by hammer on the front wall. With emphasis in the tooth destroyed by the shock material, which is required for the development efforts that exceed the efforts developed by the main drive of the excavator, corresponding to hammer into operation, providing the shock destruction of the developed material. The main element of the bucket is the active leading edge which provides the destruction of the area.
Okuncev S.A., Vakhrushev S.I.
In this article we offer to reduce the noise level of the hydraulic excavator working due to the ventilator-plant modernization of the cooling the engine system and improvement the outgoing gas venting muffler.
STEEL WIRE ROPE WITH CORE: PROBLEMS OF REDUCING DIFFERENCE OF AGGREGATE AND TOTAL STRENGTH, OBTAINING EQUALLY STRONG ROPE
Poroshin S.I., Vakhrushev S.I.
This article describes a steel rope, which is indispensable part of many building machines. The concept of "equally strong" rope. The mathematical model allows to reduce the difference between the total strength of the wires and the aggregate strength of the rope as a whole. Considering the presence of the core.
Racheva N.S., Vakhrushev S.I.
Scrapers efficiency with different mechanisms of downloading of depending on the load-rangetransport of ground by evaluating the technical performance consider in this paper. As an example of self-propelledscrapers are taken scrapers of the firm «Caterpillar» with the same power.
Frolova S.I., Vahrushev S.I.
This paper studies on bulldozer’s work effectiveness increase by supplying with disk section half-sphere bulldozer blade. It’s achieves because of soil slanting cutting concept realization by disk knife free rotate, wire-drawing prism resistance travel reduction on ground and bulldozer blade surface and soil sticking to machine’s work surface prevention.
Khabibyllina D.N., Vakhrushev S.I.
Dependences for definition of parameters of a vibrating working tip for formation of horizontal chinks at no-dig are offered a lining of communications by way of a vybropuncture. Constructive and regime parameters are defined with the account of physic mechanical properties of a ground on the basis of a power method of research of process of a vybwpuncture ofb horizontal soil chinks.
Tatyannikov D.A., Zolotozubova O. A., Bogoyavlenskii N.A.
The present work gives the analysis of state of bridge park in the Perm region and its management methods. Also it examines the monitoring system and its components and gives the examples of its successful application in Russia. The aim of the work is to determine the necessity of implementation of monitoring system in the Perm region. This topic deserves attention due to the unsatisfactory state of the bridge park and the necessity of improvement and optimization of the system of maintenance of facilities.
Advantages and disadvantages of the new insulation: Cellulose Fibre, Cellulose Fibreuse, mounting, and a comparative analysis with other heaters.
Khamaeva A.R., Bochkareva T.M.
Variants of a complete set of arched hangars, and advantages of the complex structure of UBM, technology and the use of UBM.
Shagiev A.A., Ponomarev A.B.
The paper is devoted to the stabilization of soils by artificial freezing. The article discusses a set of works, the scheme of the artificial freezing of soils, the advantages and disadvantages of this technology. This paper will present an example of artificial freezing during the construction of the subway. This topic deserves attention, because the artificial freezing is a versatile tool for stabilizing soils and providing opportunities of work where it is impossible to apply the traditional techniques of soil stabilization.
Внедрение результатов исследований и технология устройства оснований дорог из шлакогрунтов с применением дорожной фрезы ДС-18
А.В. Чазов, А. А. Селюгина
В работе рассмотрены технологические особенности устройства оснований дорог с применением шлакогрунтов.
Бессараб А.А., Петренева О.В.
В представленной работе рассмотрен пример применения нанобетона при проектировании многоэтажной автостоянки и проведен анализ его экономической эффективности.
Гордевич Е.В., Федотова О.С., Петренева.О.В
В представленной работе рассмотрены добросовестные застройщики г.Перми и проведен анализ их конкурентоспособности.
Подбор и исследование состава щебеночно-мастичного асфальтобетона с использованием модификатора « КМА эластен»
В работе затронут вопрос о применении в щебеночно-мастичном асфальтобетоне (ЩМА) резинового порошка, его влияние на физико-механические свойства асфальтобетона, проблемы утилизации изношенных покрышек автомобилей.
Лавриков М.Н., Петренева О.В
Работа ставит перед собой цель - ознакомление и отслеживание эффективности проведения такого вида торга, как электронные аукционы в городе Перми.
Исследование миграция ионов ванадия из бетонных изделий со шлаковым заполнителем с добавлением отходов содового производства.
А.В. Мальцев, К.Г. Пугин
В статье исследуется снижение миграции ионов тяжелых металлов, из шлакобетонных образцов в модельные среды. В качестве модельной среды выбран аммонийно-ацетатный буфер (рН=4,8), моделирующий кислотные осадки. В качестве добавки, для снижения миграционной активности ионов тяжелых металлов, применяются отходы содового производства. В ходе исследования, экспериментальным методом была показана эффективность применения данной добавки в шлакобетонных изделиях, а так же сделан вывод что, данная технология позволяет использовать шлакобетонные изделия в кислых средах, в том числе на кислых почвах.
Э.И. Насыров, Калошина С.В.
В данной статье рассмотрена история создания и применения композитной арматуры, также опыт ее использования на различных объектах. Представлена таблица сравнения со стальной арматурой. Рассмотрены технологии армирования композитной арматурой. Приведены достоинства и недостатки композитной арматуры.
Санникова О.А., Юшков Б.С
В работе рассматривается новая технология малоэтажного строительства, применение лёгких тонкостенных конструкций в устройстве стен, перекрытий, кровли зданий, фундамент в виде конических свай.
Б.С. Баталин, К.А. Сарайкина
В статье представлено исследование процесса выщелачивания стеклянных волокон непосредственно в цементной среде с использованием образцов-вкладышей, по результатам которого можно однозначно утверждать о механизме разрушения волокна.
Леонтьев С.В. Голубев В.А. Курзанов А.Д.
В статье приводятся результаты исследовательской работы, направленной на разработку теплоизоляционного автоклавного газобетона. Оптимальные теплотехнические и прочностные характеристики материала были достигнуты за счет высоких качественных показателей составляющих ячеисто-бетонной смеси, применения армирующих компонентов, а также благодаря использованию добавок, функция которых - регулирование процесса порообразования.
Курзанов А.Д., Леонтьев С.В., Шаманов В.А., Харитонов В.А.
В статье рассмотрена проблема долговечности автоклавного газобетона. Отмечено, что один из наиболее перспективных методов повышения долговечности является введение в состав газобетона модифицирующих добавок, что подтверждено результатами лабораторных испытаний.
Analysis of efficiency of organizational and technological solutions of safety in joint working of cranes
Antipov V.V., Pestov A.A., Kaloshina S.V.
the article describes the main activities to ensure safety in joint working of several cranes and analyzes their efficiency on the basis of statistics of accidents associated with using of two or more cranes. Also the article describes the recommendations of improving efficiency in joint lifting the same cargo of several cranes.
Antipov V.V., Bochkareva T.M.
the article describes the features of using of modern hyperplasticizers in concrete mixtures, also the article contains the analysis of their efficiency by comparison with superplasticizers.
Asanova A.S., Luzgina E.A., Kaloshina S.V.
The article is devoted to the problem of construction waste recycling as one of the most pressing issues of today. All methods of construction waste management are examined in detal, on the basis of which there are drawn conclusions on possible ways to improve the efficiency of construction waste recycling. The following effect involves eliminating a negative impact on the environment and using all the waste in the secondary raw materials. The examples of non-waste recycling and deposition are given. Some recommendations for optimizing waste treatment on the construction site aimed at reducing waste amount are offered.
Bakieva I.D., Nigmatullina R.V., Kaloshina S.V.
the analysis of the technologies of building high-rise buildings in the Soviet Union and modern Russia. Compared body-block, brick, monolithic designs, as well as a modern method of construction of buildings with metal frame. Discusses their advantages and disadvantages.
Bogdanova E.O., Lysyak I.V., Kaloshina S.V.
The goals and tasks of green construction are considered. The documents establishing green standards are reviewed. Some green technologies are analyzed. The examples of green buildings are given. The green buildings both in the world and in Russia are explored. The prospects for the development of green construction in Russia are considered.
Selection of devices that increase the permeability of the construction vehicles when operating in the Perm region
Bezmaternykh A.V., Vakhrushev S.I.
Performed patent searches of devices that increase the permeability of the vehicle in off-road conditions, namely: thawed clayey soil, loose snow, ice, blurred water track gauge.
Zagainova E. Y., Cheremnykh A. A., Kaloshina S.V.
The important stage in construction of buildings and installations in the insulations is the insulation of surfaces in various ways. The most modern way is the fluid heater. In this article all advantages and disadvantages of this way of insulation are presented in details. Also, there is an information about the technology of application and about main points of comparative characteristics with other heat – insulating materials.
The problematics of illegal construction, consequences of construction without the design and executive documentation is opened. The given problem is considered on an example of building-technical research of underground garage on 60 cars in a Krasnokamsk.
Zgolich O.I., Vakhrushev S.I.
The research piling pipes laid-wave theory of impact. The dependence of the piling-pipe pneumatic shock machines on the resistance of the soil. Get the basics needed to select the optimum performance and pneumatic drum machines for piling of steel pipes.
Zolotaryova Yu.S., Vakhrushev S.I.
Construction machines execute difficult functional processes during that there is a wear of details. A comparative analysis as method allowing to set periodicity of repair works taking into account their rationality is offered in this article. Atechnological process model of renewal and curve of wear are basic data of this work. As a result of research It was shown that more expedient to increase the TBO cycle for the quickweared details of building machines.
L. Igosheva, S. Kaloshina
The article is devoted concrete admixtures, namely plasticizers. The mechanism of action is also a comparison of five well-known brands plasticizers based on several criteria: the increase in strength, a reduction of water consumption, reducing the flow of cement, workability, water resistance and others. The use of chemical additives increases the production rate and the quality of the concrete, which indicates the feasibility of their use.
S.V. Kaloshina, L.V. Glagolevskaja
Article is devoted to the selection criteria and methods for optimizing the schedule with the vision of work in industrial production facilities. The results of the analysis of the technical literature devoted to the optimization of schedules in the reconstruction of industrial facilities. The analysis of the timetable on the example of an industrial facility.
Kaloshina S.V., Pikuleva V.O., Karmanova O.S.
The article is an example of a high-rise building in Russia. The technology of self-climbing formwork system, and provides design solutions and especially the construction of high-rise structures, methods of supplying concrete to great heights. Are new building materials that were used in the construction of "evolution".
Kolechkina A.Y. Kaloshina S.V.
The article describes an automated process to build the foundations of the plastic blocks. Step-by-step installation of foundations, highlights the main advantages and disadvantages. A comparison of this technology with precast and monolithic ribbon Foundation. Conclusions about the feasibility of using this type of foundations.
Techno-economic comparison of the different types of retained form-work of polystyrene with large-panel forms.
Kolechkina A.Y. Petreneva O.V.
The article presents a comparison of retained formwork of polystyrene with large-panel forms on their main techno-economic characteristics. For each type of formwork detail statement of resources, the structure of the direct costs. Was comparison technology method of ranking. Are the main advantages and disadvantages of these types of formwork.
The method of reduced static and dynamic loading metal structures construc-tion machinery with hydraulic drive
Kudasheva M.I., Vahrushev S.I.
A method of reducing the static and dynamic loading of metal construction machinery hydraulic based on the creation of a metal construction machine additional efforts of the opposite external load and commensurate largest external force. As a result, there is a redistribution of stresses in the cross section in the whole metal that provides stress relief in general. Unloading system may be applied to all cases of loading designs of construction machinery
Lashova S.S., Kaloshina S.V.
The paper describes different types of permanent formwork. Identified the advantages and disadvantages of each type. The comparative analysis was conducted according to following criteria: environmental compatibility, price, and fire safety, conclusions.
A.V. Melnikov O.S. Turova S.V. Kaloshina
The technology of the device of pile foundations by static indentation. The range of this technology. Considered the machinery. Conducted a feasibility analysis of the most popular ways of piling on the method of static indentation.
Nekrasova M.V., Serebrennikov S.A.
The article contains a comparison of ways of connecting rods reinforcement in concrete structures. Considered methods such as threaded coupling, crimp fittings ( by crimping couplings hydraulic equipment manufactured by "BIS-2"), the connection weld, splice site. A comparative analysis of economic efficiency of overlap joints, welding, crimping fittings.
System of contactless magnetic-pulse technology of construction machines repair based on a combined matching device
Olenyova A.A., Vahrushev S.I.
The article considers the system of contactless magnetic-pulse repair of carcass parts of construction machines. The results of experimental research of combined matching devices – a primary component of the tool to repair dents in sheet metal are brought. Analytic forms for the component of the vector of electromagnetic field, excited in the system, and currents induced in the metal of the secondary coil of the device are obtained.
E.D. Osterman, O.V. Petreneva
In Perm Krai, Russia, wages of young families don’t allow them to purchase real estate. They are simply unable to make a lump sum funds for the purchase of housing. Young families have to save money in order to purchase apartment and at the same time must rent housing. Because of this situation, people are forced to use a mortgage lending to solve their housing problems. This article analyzes the pro-gram of Perm City banks that provide mortgages, as well as the pros and cons of mortgage lending.
E.D. Osterman, O.A. Shutova
On playgrounds children are very susceptible to injury, so we should refer meticulous to the selection of coating for playground. Earlier courtyards were simply covered with sand, gravel or asphalt. Recently appeared a huge number of artificial types of coating sand it's difficult to navigate in a variety of their assort-ment. The article deals with four new artificial coatings for playgrounds.
Petreneva O.V., Pikuleva V.O., Umshanov A.V.
The paper presents various innovative technologies and building materials used in the Russian construction industry. The problems of innovation in the construction market. Considered the risks of construction companies related to innovation and pricing issues and determining the estimated cost of innovative works.
Determination of intensions and displacements arising in arrow mobile crane with a structural mechanics rod systems equations complete system without taking into account geometrical and physical nonlinearities
Rumyantsev S. D., Vakhrushev S. I.
Currently design calculations are fully automated. This imposes a requirement for the engineer which is to check results of the automated structure calculation. This article shows connections between classical and software mobile crane arrow calculations.
Tarasova T.V., Ismagilova Y.R., Kaloshina S.V.
This article describes a phased technology device ventilated facade , highlighted all the requirements to them , a comparative analysis with other kind of facades ( "wet" facade ) and identified the advantages and disadvantages of this technology .
Snigireva V.N., Vakhrushev S.I.
In the article are considered three modern and actual technological decisions of loose material transportation. Patent research is carried out and a list of technical and economic indicators, such as performance improvement, increase the angle of transport, increase in transportation distance, decrease in depreciation of fixed nodes and universal technological solutions, is found. To evaluate the effectiveness of the technology were identified comparison criteria: distance transportation of bulk materials, average performance conveyors, the maximum angle of lifting and simplicity of constructive solutions. According to the analysis of the results, advantages and disadvantages and estimated the efficiency of all technological decisions were established.
Compilation of estimates is one of the important stages of building. In this paper, based on local estimates for the replacement of floor linoleum on parquet floor. Compare two methods: basis-index and resource. The results obtained are structured in a table highlights the main advantages and disadvantages of each method, to facilitate the selection of a method of estimating specific work.
Shilyaev T.A., Kolesova E.N., Kaloshina S.V.
the article describes the main types of accidents tower cranes and analysis reasons of their occurrence. The examples of accidents tower cranes. Carried out collection of information of the number of accidents in Privolzhsky and Ural Federal districts. Identified the major methods of removing the causes of accidents.
Yadovina K.S., Chepkasova V.V., Kaloshina S.V.
: This article is devoted to the research of the features, advantages and disadvantages of the main types of membrane roofing materials. Key stages of the technology of bracing and joining of polymeric materials are considered in it. A comparison of membranes with other types of roll roofing and comparison of different methods of installation the roll material roof are based on the studied data. Research results permit to generalize extend the knowledge of the application and features of the assembling of membrane roofs.
A.V. Bezmaternykh1, N.S. Mizev2, S.V.Kaloshina1
Abstract: It shows the relevance of the construction of fixed offshore platforms, through which hydrocarbons are extracted. Given the concept and the description of the Arctic continental shelf of the Russian Federation. Displaying the percentage of hydrocarbons on the shelf. Indicated that the search operations conducted in the same manner as on the continent. Shown geophysical methods of search and exploration of deposits. A comparison of drilling on land and sea. Results dignity offshore stationary platform gravity. We describe the structure and technology of erection of the installation. Presents the installation sequence for the deposit platform and various design stage. Given explanations to the cycles of the simplified schedule of works. Results provisions on quality control and compliance with the established requirements in the construction in the Arctic. It shows the unique oil and gas platforms.
O.V. Goncharova, S.I. Vahrushev
The article touches upon the issue of analyzing the innovations in the design of bulldozer work equipment, as well as research of impact of using the certain structural elements on bulldozer productivity. The article presents the classification of bulldozer work equipment by different criteria. There is pointed a number of bulldozer machine development directions. The main structural elements able to improve machine productivity and expand its scope are defined. There is grounded the consistency of hydraulic cylinders using in bladepositioncontrol. Design features of blade necessary to work in specific soil conditions are pointed. It was found that such work requires special attachment mounted directly on the bulldozer blade. There is estimated the effect of the attachment on the machine productivity while working on its unusual soils. Considered inventions are evaluated in terms of environmental safety and protection.
The object of the research is porous ceramic blocks relatively new building material, which appeared in the 80s of the last century. The article examines the characteristics of this material. Highlighted its advantages and disadvantages. Also it found that from porous ceramics as the material of the carrier is allowed to cock the building height of floors 9, inclusive, and if it is used as a self-supporting material or non-structural, that its application is almost unlimited. Technology of using this material is significantly different from the usual brick, since the solution is placed on horizontal joints only, and the vertical seams do not need it due to the fact that the end faces of blocks connected in tongue and groove. The solution is used "warm", since joints are cold bridges and through them to originate the biggest heat loss. Transportation porous blocks is carried on pallets to wrap the package in the film. Keep material as possible in the transport position and in the stack. The study concluded that that "warm" ceramic is a promising replacement for the traditional bricks, as almost all the characteristics except the fragility and frost, it is ahead of him. Also one of the major advantages is the thermal conductivity of the material is several times lower than that of a brick, in accordance with the permitted walling of "warm" without ceramic heater that increases the life of the building and reduce construction costs.
The article touches upon the issue of the building structures defects. The classification of defects has been introduced. It is reported about common defects in the monolithic housing construction and their causes. The author draws reader's attention to results of state checks at construction sites. In conclusion the author notes weaknesses in the organization of monolithic construction technology in Russia. The article gives a practical recommendations for the improvement of their quality
UDK: 692.48; 693.29
T.V. Zagitdinova, S.V. Kaloshina
The article discusses the concept of automation, what it is, its advantages and direction of technological processes in the construction industry: in construction of buildings and structures, finishing, repair, diagnostics and rehabilitation. Describes how you can achieve better productivity, speed of construction, reducing time spent on manual operations, elimination of errors related to insufficient qualification of workers. In the sphere of construction of buildings represented robotic system to perform brickwork, a device for the construction of the walls of the modules, the method of construction of a building frame, device for mounting of roof structures, describes the principle of operation of an industrial robot for the construction of buildings. In the sphere of finishing works have been devoted to robot plasterer that can ease the work and reduce the time to complete the plastering. In the sphere of inspection and diagnostics of buildings and constructions presents a method which allows to eliminate the mistakes caused by insufficient qualification of experts, and conduct various calculations.
A.A. Zaitsev, A.V. Maksimovskikh, S.V. Kaloshina
The article studied the problem of corrosion of concrete and methods of corrosion protection of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and their separate elements. Shows the classification of concrete corrosion in gaseous, solid and liquid media. The above types of corrosion damage the concrete, resulting in a decrease in strength and, as a consequence, the durability of buildings and structures. Considered a list of concrete to protect the design of input data from destruction by the unfavorable external factors. A more detailed study of the problem of secondary protection of concrete and reinforced concrete from corrosion damage. The comparative characteristic of secondary protection options. The advantages and disadvantages of certain types of coatings, improving the properties and durability of concrete structures. Presents promising directions of development of corrosion protection of concrete and concrete products from destruction.
N.A. Zykina, A.A. Ivanko, S.V. Kaloshina
Nowadays, 3D flooring is an innovative installation technology of self-leveling floor. The floor with the volume effect helps to solve design problems. The article contains short recommendations on how to choose a covering image, depending on intention of premises. Also there are several types of images and the self-leveling floor field of application. The application of all polymer coating layers is considered in stages. Besides, it is spoken about a polymeric floor’s distinctive features: mechanical and chemical stability, aesthetic appeal, environmental friendly and easy way of cleaning. Furthermore, there is comparison between 3D cover with alternative types of self-leveling floor (epoxy and polyurethane). The comparison is made in the form of a table. The conclusions are about the advantages and disadvantages of the 3D floor in different intention of premises.
V.S. Ivashkin, S.I. Vahrushev
Consider the scope of the pneumatic tire. Presents special requirements for pneumatic tires for construction machines. A patent search is conducted on the different test stands for pneumatic tire. Two groups of test benches are considered: the stands allowing to measure the concrete parameters and stands intended for increase in accuracy, or for bigger automation of measurement of parameters of a pneumatic tire. Advantages, disadvantages and distinctive features of test benches are presented. Considered the notion of norm ply-rating, the schedule of dependence of carrying capacity on ply-rating of pneumatic tire of enhanceable passableness is constructed. The method of modeling of loading capacity of the pneumotire based on cutting off of contact of the tire from a cover is presented. Concepts of carrying power of a wheel, vertical force of the bearing framework of the autotire, a spot of contact of a pneumowheel are considered. The task of general durability of shell of tire is solved by the method of sections. The most dangerous sections of a pneumocover are considered. The concept of normal pressure is considered owing to what it is established that discrepancy of internal pressure of the autotire to norm results in uneven wear of the tire and according to deterioration in operational properties. The effort in threads of a cord and explosive pressure is calculated. Dependence of loading capacity on air pressure in the autotire is considered. The relation of normal pressure to potentially maximum pressure in the autotire is calculated. The question of a possibility of increase in loading capacity due to achievement of big pressure in the autotire is raised.
V.S. Ivashkin, A.V. Semenov, S.V. Kaloshina
Considered a new type of a roofing covering and design features. Reasons of "heat island effect" in the cities are presented and ways of their decision are considered. The assessment of this covering on such coeffi-cients as is given: solar reflectance, thermal emittance, solar absorptance, thermal resistance. It is shown that use of cool roofs allows to increase roof service life, to save money on the electric power, and also to reduce "effect of the thermal island". The analysis of reflecting ability of the traditional roof and roof covered with special re-flecting structure is carried out. Given alternative options cool roof: green and solar roof. The advantages and disadvantages of cool roofs for individual buildings and for the city as a whole are considered.
I.A. Isupov, T.M. Bochkareva
New technologies are even more often used and entered in the modern construction, one of such technologies is expansion of wells under stuffed piles. Piles in unroll wells can be used as the foundation for a new device structures, and to restore the reliability of emergency facilities, as well as the reconstruction of buildings, increasing the bearing capacity of the foundation operated. The relevance of this article due to the need to generalize the knowledge and experience gained by drifting wells and reflect the main aspects of this technique: the advantages, disadvantages, construction technology. The article describes the circuit piles, rolled wells and layout of piles in the ground array. The advantages and disadvantages of the technology are listed. The device of screw and drum roller of a soil are described. Basic cars and installations for expansion of wells are given.
I.A. Isupov, T.M. Bochkareva
The technology of a wall in a soil is considered in this article. The way "wall in a soil" - one of the most frequent and widely applicable ways of underground construction. Relevance of technology is caused by annually growing demand for construction of the buried underground constructions. The classification of walls is given in a soil: to destination, to materials, on a configuration in the article. Described process sequence to create a wall in the ground. Advantages and shortcomings of a method are listed. Various cars and mechanisms for the wall device in a soil are considered. Construction methods depending on ground conditions are described. Describes two methods erecting walls in the ground: dry method and wet method using a slurry. The standard set is given and questions of quality control of construction are considered.
Investigation of wear resistance of the working body of the building and road machines in various operating conditions
Y.D. Kazakova, S.I. Vahrushev
This article shows the phenomenon of wear resistance of the working equipment including teeth dozer blade, knives and shovels and etc, the negative influent of corrosion and wear and tear on the construction process. Wear and tear, where material loss as a result of exposure to particulate matter, aggressive environment, is one of the major challenges of reducing the life of the working bodyworking body which is operated under severe conditions. Therefore, of great interest comprises developing new steel materials and technical solutions, resulting in increased wear resistance. Presented steel`s patents most suitable for using in cold weather, in an abrasive environment or high shock loading conditions. Furthermore, it shows especially these compositions(alloys) and their main applications. The development of new steel materials and specifications, resulting in higher wear resistance. Significantly increases the life of the working body of the building and road cars developed technology with hardening restoring worn parts. As a universal method described carbovibrodugovoy method technology, and review the process of improving (restoring) the worn surface in this way. The relevance of this article is supported raising taxes on the import of new jobs for the construction and road machines. Due to the high degree of wear of the working performance of the machine body is reduced, thereby increasing the performance time and economic costs. Working with poor working body can disrupt the process and the safety of the work. All of these factors hinder the achievement of the main goal of building and road cars - increased efficiency and productivity on the construction site.
Y.D. Kazakova, M.E. Polovnikov, S.V. Koloshina
This article focuses on the facades of buildings on the device using the stained glass. The classification of types of stained facades, which reveals several structural systems is fundamentally different from each other. Also touched upon the use of advanced materials in the production of stained-glass systems. We consider the scope of the decorative translucent walling. This article discusses the benefits of stained glass over other types of systems, facades, are the different types of stained glass insulation systems, as well as discussed issues of energy conservation. The article describes how the standard glazing technology with the help of struts, crossbars and clamping frames, as well as more modern technologies such as the spider, structural and semi-structural system.
Y.S. Karagulova, E.A. Nikolenko, S.V. Kaloshina
In this article unique huge construction cars, such as the Bagger 288 excavator, the mobile Grove 6350 elevator, the bulldozer Komatsu D575A3 are considered. Advantages of these cars over the usual construction equipment used on earthwork are revealed. Features of operation of giant cars are considered, and also their technical characteristics are given. In article scopes and features of work of equipment in different construction conditions are described. Comparison of productivity, loading capacity and volume of a dump of huge cars with similar technical parameters of cars of the standard sizes is made. For descriptive reasons comparison is executed in the form of schedules. Shortcomings of use of giant cars of daily construction are noted. The conclusion is drawn on overall performance of giant cars, on their importance at works on big construction objects.
This article describes the different ways of warming of walls, ceilings and roofs. Choosing the right method of warming should not depend only on the price of insulation, because each heater will not be practical and work effectively. As a result, the wrong choice of insulation may cause cold bridges and moisture in some areas of the building. The shown are the main advantages of each method of warming. The comparison of insulation on the physical and mechanical properties. The classification of insulation in place and how to use them. Modern methods of warming a sputtering method, using a "wet" or "warm" plaster. It identified the most economical way of insulat-ing walls. Presented insulation technology of the device depending on the way their devices. Separately considered ways attic insulation, floor and basement floors.
Determination of dependence of efficiency of blow of a diesel hammer on depth of immersion of a pile in a clay soil of various fluidity are chosen
V.A. Kashevarova, S.I. Vahrushev
Because of the dense population of megalopolises the main share of construction is the share of construction of multystoried buildings at which the pile base acts as the load-bearing frame perceiving loading from the building and transferring her to the basis. Therefore the knowledge of a production cycle of immersion of a pile and nature of change of parameters of equipment for pile works that will allow to increase an efficiency of installation of the bases is very important. For this purpose in article dependence of efficiency of blow of a hammer on depth of immersion of a driven pile in a clay soil is studied.As the equipment for pile works the rod and tubular diesel hammers immersing a pile in a clay soil of various fluidity are chosen ( , , ), Schedules of change of the settlement resistance of a soil under the lower end of a pile and settlement resistance of the i-th layer of soil on the side of the base of the pile are calculated and represented. Besides, the bearing ability of a pile is determined by a soil. Distinctions between rod and tubular diesel hammers, namely, different values of efficiency of diesel hammers are designated. Considering these distinctions, calculation of change of efficiency of blow of a hammer for three indicators of fluidity of a clay soil is made. The revealed dependences allowed to draw conclusions on nature of change of settlement resistance of a soil, efficiency of blow of diesel hammers. Probe has dot character and can be used for deeper studying of change of efficiency of blow of pile hammers.
A.P. Kishmiryan, R.M. Shamsiev, S.V. Kaloshina
The article shows the cost-effectiveness of the use of chemical additives in the production of various construction materials. It describes the scope, purpose and main features of chemical additives for concrete. Forecast of production of concrete and reinforced concrete in Russia. The classification of chemical additives, depending on their destination. The question of their impact on the concrete characteristics such as strength, flexibility, connectivity, density, while curing, frost, etc. We analyzed in detail two plasticizer: complex additive Russian production PKF-70 and foreign special plasticizer for concrete TENCEM 2. describe their properties, application, dosage rate and the conditions under which achieved the greatest efficiency of their use. Based on research compiled a comparative table of the properties of the above-mentioned plasticizers.
This article proposes improving the infrastructure of the city of Perm, as well as attracting investment through the development of underground space: creation of underground car parks, parking lots, and the main subway. The history of the question of the design, and later creating the Perm underground. The information on the preliminary location of subway lines, the length, the same said about the reasons for the construction and companies, who designed the Permian underground. We present the cost of designing the metro is not simple considering the geological conditions. Consider new engineering invention leading companies for the development of the soil, as well as their improvement, thanks to which it is possible to reduce the cost and speed. A comparison Tunnel mahanizirovanny complex with active prigruza such as hydraulic and soil prigruza. It describes the advantages and disadvantages of each method for different construction conditions.
Yu.A. Kuznecova, S.I. Vahrushev
In this article the object of research is the bulldozer. The subject of the research is the longevity of the dozer. The urgency of the problem due to the high demand for the use of bulldozers, which entails a high financial costs for the restoration of this machine. The article sets the task of analysis the changes in the design of the working equipment of the bulldozer, also examines the impact of application of different components of the longevity of the dozer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the strengths and weaknesses in the equipment, finding different ways to improve the durability of bulldozers, to study of the constructive features of the machine. Design and operational features of the bulldozers were identified.. The factors of external environment that have a negative impact on the operation of the machine were identified too. Different schemes of hydraulic equipment, bulldozers and the main structural elements, principles of their working were explained. The differences, the strengths and weaknesses of all considered design solutions were identified and justified. By using such devices as: compensation cylinders comprising a hydraulic drive, a vertical elastic connection between the car and the equipment, isolation of flexible hoses connected to the hydraulic drive, a Ripper tooth and the crank is achieved the increased longevity of the bulldozers. It justifies expediency of use of the hydraulic drive, in particular hydraulic cylinders for controlling the position of the blade. As a result of the study revealed the best device that allows increasing the longevity of the dozer. The durability of the device is achieved by means of hydraulic cylinders-the sensor and compensating cylinders. It should also be noted that in theinvention, using the accumulator of stored energy can reduce the costs of energy required for the operation of the bulldozer.
The object of research is the monolithic housing construction, technology of erection of concrete buildings and structures, which is one of the most perspectives. The purpose of research is to study the advantages and disadvantages, main characteristics one of the technology of monolithic high-rise building in a tunnel formwork and trends of it. The basic characteristics were identified. The study revealed the relevance of using this type of formwork in monolithic housing construction. Application of tunnel formwork allows erecting the building as soon as possible having variety of shapes and sizes. This technology improves the quality and accuracy of the erection of buildings, and allows saving on finishing processes. To date, monolithic housing construction is in demand in the Russian construction market, this technology has a great future.
K.S. Lezina, S.I. Vahrushev
The article investigates accidents and injuries resulting from the operation of tower cranes. The above analysis and the identification of ways to reduce accidents and injuries. The study used the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, induction, synthesis. The problems requiring immediate solutions: strengthening the work of supervisory authorities are also responsible for the operation of the lifting means, with certain defects, leading to injuries and accidents; tracking the dynamics of improvement or deterioration of the injury and accident statistics in comparing different types of cranes. Showing statistics on research in Russia for 2011-2014, analyzed the causes of accidents that result in injuries of varying severity. Studied examples of accidents cranes. Reveals the most important aspects, such as the need to improve the quality of technical supervision for the safe operation of cranes, mechanization and automation of production, improvement of technological processes when working with tower cranes, timely decommissioning of equipment, spent a settlement resource, creation of proper working conditions for the safe and high-performance operation of tower cranes machinists. The necessity of providing construction companies with highly qualified personnel, in order to improve the training of engineers, improve the quality inspection and control of visual inspection equipment. The article contains recommendations aimed at reducing accidents in the operation of tower cranes.
The article covers the history of the emergence and application of Venetian Plaster finishing work. It showed her composition used in the past. The article told modern surface technology of Venetian plaster. The urgency of the research, to identify environmentally friendly and long-term in the application of finishing materials to help improve and enhance the architectural and aesthetic and protective qualities of the operational structure. The classification and application technology of Venetian plaster with different equipment. Advantages and disadvantages of plaster, giving a complete picture of this finishing material. The paper used the methods of qualitative analysis, induction, synthesis, allowing to analyze the subject more deeply. The efficiency of application in the construction of Venetian plaster, creating a spirit of European Middle Ages in modern style decoration.
S.A. Martynova, S.I. Vakhrushev
The main problems of providing a high level of competitiveness of the Russian technique, and ways of their efficient elimination are considered, the assessment of level of ability to participate in competitive fight of domestic producers against foreign is carried out in the article. An object of this research is the Russian market of construction equipment. Purposes of my studying: to give the characteristic to structural cars in Russia, (to estimate the volume and dynamics of the market, to characterize park of the Russian Federation equipment, to provide the forecast of development for the next years on a world car market, to analyse production of structural cars of the largest domestic companies on such technique as the bulldozer, the grader, the excavator). Such methods as an induction (from the particular to the general), qualitative, quantitative and comparative analyses were for this purpose used. Particular types of cars, their sales, production and situation on a car market, and also influence on national economy in general were investigated. Economic indexes from 2000 to 2015 were brought and compared, and also the direction of development of the Russian specialized technique was analysed. The conclusions received as a result of the analysis say that now many domestic producers of special equipment fill up the market with the most different models of structural cars. The market of construction equipment actively develops, showing a stable increase annually. The tendency to body height was outlined still about ten years ago when the structural direction actively began to develop, volumes of construction of constructions and buildings inhabited and production increased.
А.А. Mosheva, S.I. Vahrushev
This article discusses and analyzes the features of soil compaction by road rollers. Soil compaction in the coating is one of the most important and at the same time the most difficult road-building operations. The problem is that the quality of soil compaction depends on many factors: experience and skillsof builders, sortof asphalt concrete and its constituent materials, used machines,conditions of substrate and roadbed, climatic conditions, work organization and technology. Are analyzed various types of rollers and their performances, conducted research of the time layout and seal a mixture in depend on the thickness of the layer and weather conditions. The choice of speed of movement and the length of the working capture - is the most important moment in the organization of compaction, the organization of this process is also described and analyzed in article.
M.V. Nekrasova, S.V. Kaloshina
This article describes the main factors causing organizational and technological risks, such as:. A partial volume of the materials, the lack of qualified working staff, lack of control at the construction site, errors in the working documents, untimely inspection of construction equipment, etc. It is shown how it is possible to take into account organizational and technological risks in the project construction organization and design of the work. Particular attention is paid to obtain the maximum profit of the general contractor at the lowest cost. The methodology of calculation of the economic effects of the contractor during the development of the project of construction organization and design of the work. Results from some parts of the project shall comprise the organization of construction work and the production of the project and how to have the economic effect of the contractor can be taken into account. Presents risk management methods, such as methods of risk aversion, risk methods of localization, the methods of risk diversification, methods of risk compensation.
Проблема производства в наши дни всегда сводится к одному, а именно к времени производства работ. Чтобы сократить время производства и в общем ускорить его процесс, а также снизить себестоимость, предлагается кабельный кран на шасси отечественного грузово
Проблема производства в наши дни всегда сводится к одному, а именно к времени производства работ. Чтобы сократить время производства и в общем ускорить его процесс, а также снизить себестоимость, предлагается кабельный кран на шасси отечественного грузового автомобиля. Кабельные краны предназначены для обслуживания больших производственных площадей и перемещения больших объёмов грузов на протяженные расстояния, они широко используются для ускорения работ на строительных площадках, судостроительных верфях, плотинах, угольных и лесных складах и для транспортировки через реки и другие протяженные объекты. Кабельный кран может использоваться при строительстве на сложном рельефе местности, где работа другого крана является затруднительной, а также при строительстве на участках с большой протяженностью или площадью застройки. При этом кран позволяет доставлять строительные материалы непосредственно к месту их использования с пункта складирования, расположенного на строительной площадке. В данной статье представлены расчётные формулы, которые могли бы определить технические характеристики строительной машины в соответствии с востребованностью их использования: формулы для подбора канатов, высоты мачт кабельного крана, нагрузки на канаты, ОПУ, а также опор крана. Подводя итоги, мы можем определять характеристики крана на основе данных расчётов, а также подбирать и создавать его рабочие органы и необходимые детали в соответствиис требованиями потенциальных заказчиков данной машины.
M.V. Rubtsova, A.M. Soldatenkova, S.V. Kaloshina
Nowadays an important moment in the construction are the terms and the cost of construction of residential buildings. It should be noted that as a significant advantage can be a high degree of prefabrication and as a result, the relative simplicity of construction and ease of installation. The active development of the industry and the constant search for new solutions to give rise to a variety of building construction technology. But many of them do not find the consumer or due to ignorance and lack of certain advertising, remain largely unknown. The article contains a description of two technologies which are rarely used in our country. Both of them are used for the construction of low-rise buildings - namely the construction of buildings with the use of SIP-panels and 3D-panels. The comparative analysis of these technologies, their advantages, disadvantages and the main differences are listed.
Статья посвящена теме высотного строительства в России. Рассмотрены основные проблемы и особенности, в частности несовершенство нормативных документов. Приведены рейтинги самых высоких зданий в России и мире. Дана оценка развитию высотного строительства в
The article is dedicated to the topic of high-rise construction in Russia. The main problems and peculiarities particularly imperfection of regulations are considered. It is shown the ratings of the tallest buildings in Russia and in the world. Assessment of development of high-rise construction in Russia is made. The article gives an analysis of high-rise construction’s market in Perm city and compares it with Ekaterinburg. It reveals the problems which developers are facing during getting the permission to high-rise construction in Perm city. Also the article reveals some inconsistencies in rules of land use, development and master plan in Perm. The examples of changing the rules of land use and development concerning high-rise construction are given. Conclusions are drawn about rational location of high-rise building in the city.
Summary – Processes of construction of skyscrapers are considered, various problems of construction of skyscrapers and their decision are established and stated. Relevance of construction of skyscrapers is caused by annually growing cost of the land plots in the center of megalopolises. In article the construction materials used for production of the bearing designs of skyscrapers are considered, technologies of delivery and supply of concrete, implementation of raising of people, construction materials and designs on considerable height are considered. Technologies of construction of the bases of skyscrapers, technologies of installation of a facade of high-rise buildings and questions of safety of workers at big height are considered.
D.A. Semenov, S.V. Kaloshina
The classification of artificial islands and their construction methods identified the main shortcomings of traditional methods. The technology and operation Geotube®. The main sizes of containers Geotube®. Painted the order of works on the construction of embankments. The advantages and disadvantages of this technology. The scheme Geotube® stacking containers, artificial island Federation project. An example of the construction of the first artificial island using Geotube® technology - Amwaj Islands Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. Based on the example of the analytical method was found most suitable place in the sea on the territory of the Russian Federation for the construction of man-made mounds to address the specific needs of the country. We describe the various applications of this technology, and based on all available information, it was concluded by the present invention.
E.O. Trenogin, S.I. Vakhrushev
The article deals with the possible construction of work equipment single-bucket hydraulic excavator based on patent research. The analysis of inventions reviews their operating principle. It is revealed as positive as negative effects from innovation. It is noticed fundamental differences from similar prototypes. The article gives information about the most perspective directions of the modernization in construction of single bucket hydraulic excavator. On the basis of patent construction research of replaceable excavator’s work equipment is presented their classification. The aim of the article is to explore the perspective of working equipment single-bucket hydraulic excavator’s structure which could provide the increase of excavation productivity. The paper presents the inventions which are designed not only to increase the production efficiency, but also to increase the reliability of the equipment, and to extend their technical functionality. Among the most effective inventions stands out extended bucket with reinforced walls which can increase the production of soil excavation. Modification of the teeth can increase reliability through the use of wear-resistant materials and special geometries. Combined working equipment consisting the parallel located disk ripper, bucket and ripper tooth.
M.Y. Trefilov, S.I. Vahrushev
Uptime hydraulic drive and therefore its reliability is a necessary aspect of the study, as the main mechanism for lifting devices is precisely hydraulic. Accordingly, this article focuses on the study of the reliability of the hydraulic drive lifts. To do this, consider some common connection between the laws of distribution of time to failure and the failure of a physical entity, namely, the failure rate is considered a schedule depending on time of use of hydraulic drive and explained the physical meaning of the failure rate. Also shows a diagram of the hydraulic drive lift and described the principle of operation of the hydraulic drive. Particular attention is paid to assessing the reliability of the hydraulic drive on the basis of the exponential law of reliability. Then compares the probability of failure-free operation of the mechanism for the different number of hours of operation of hydraulic drive. This theme is complemented by the modern method of examination and analysis of the causes of failures on the basis of the scheme of causality. In the first stage of the method is carried out calculation of the total index of the functional elements of the hydraulic drive reliability and assesses performance hydraulic drive, while refusing all elements of the system. The second step assesses the reliability of the hydraulic drive on the level of gravity of the manifest failure taking account of the refusal on the basis of calculations of indicators of elements of critical failures of hydraulic drive. In conclusion, given the results of the analyzes and conclusions of the calculations. It is a question how the reliability of the hydraulic drive with the passage of time and the reasons for this change, as well as notes which elements of the hydraulic drive have the largest and smallest functional reliability.
M.Y. Trefilov, A.E. Petrov, S.V. Kaloshina
Concrete is one of the main materials in the construction, they are used widely. This article is devoted to investigation of characteristics of concrete on the basis of two binders: nanotsementa and Portland cement. Certain types of cements. A table of the material composition nanotsementa. Described its production technology and a diagram. Are views modifiers used in the manufacture nanotsementa. Considered part of the building of concrete, as well as indicators of quality of concrete. This analysis is supplemented topic concrete characteristics, namely comparing concretes based on Portland cement and nanotsementa frost resistance, compressive strength and flexural strength. Also, the dependence of strength while reducing the consumption of Portland cement in the manufacture nanotsementa.
E.V. Shaidurova E.V., S.I. Vakhrushev
This article is dedicated to innovations in the field of disk brake, the braking process, the main advantages of disk brakes and brake construction are stated. The large attention was paid also to creation history of disk brake. In this article you can find the main patent inventions of disk brake such as disk-block brake by E.P Raksha, car disk brake by Gerard Le Dei, disk brake with refind recoil by Hosep Ruiz Buskets, disk brale by Siverinsson Larse, brake shoe with liquid cooler by V.V. Selifonov, S.I.Damdin, disk brake by G.I. Mamiti and others. For example, in the invention by Selifonov V.V. and Damdin S.I. there is a new technology. It includes that cooler frame is designed in the common iron pipe order installed inside the shoe concentric its axis from the backside in such a way that there is no clearance between the iron pipe and the shoe frame. Besides the main direction of brake development among patent invention is determined. Every patent invention is examined from different sides: prototype deference, main details and their connection, the working way. The purpose of the research is to define advantages and disadvantages of disk brakes in comparation with other types of brakes, to determine the main elements of braking process, their improvement relatively their prototypes. The research methods are patent search, studying and generalization, analysis and synthesis. The main results include the following facts. The direction of disk brake development, it means the support construction improvement, is exposed. The own scheme of wear check indicator based on prototypes investigated earlier is stated.
E.V. Shaidurova, S.V. Kaloshina
Most modern countries have in common - a fast-paced life that is reflected in the construction. Nowadays, the process of construction requires high quality and speed of work as in the manufacture of structures and the construction site. In this regard, prefabricated houses so rapidly spreading. The aim of the research in this paper - a comparison of different technologies erection of buildings: the construction of prefabricated buildings using permanent formwork, using 3D - panels and frame housing. In this article, a comparison was made 3 above technology of prefabricated buildings with the usual technology of erection of brick houses. A comparison was made on the following grounds: construction time at home (for example, taken from a house the size of 6 * 9 m), operation and maintenance, material density and thermal conductivity of the wall material, accuracy and workability, weather resistance, durability and environmental friendliness. Collated key moments 3 technologies, the advantages and disadvantages, application. In addition, a comparison of manufacturers of permanent formwork such as Plastbau-3, Izod and Thermo. Comparison of permanent formwork technology was carried out according to the following classification criteria: the size of the products, the possibility of reinforcement, the possible height of constructed buildings of concrete compaction process, the concrete pouring process and advanced technology of prefabricated buildings with the use of permanent formwork.
P.S. Shanko, A.V. Shishkina, S.V. Kaloshina.
This article contains information about the history and origin of the idea of the construction of the dome. Consider the feasibility of building domed buildings of any purpose. It raises questions about the strength, economic, environmental, and aesthetic and other advantages and disadvantages of small domed structure. Visually calculated the volume and surface area of the dome of the building and the building in the shape of the box, in order to prove greater energy efficiency geodoma, in terms of compactness of the building. Some characteristics of the dome - house in comparison with a conventional building of the cubic type. Characteristics are compared with each other and are summarized in the table for the evaluation and comparison of the most important parameters in the construction. Also in the article describes the following technology of erection of buildings dome: the dome construction on the basis of a geodesic sphere, the construction of buildings on the basis pneumoframework, methods of building dome homes on the basis of permanent formwork and building factory production.
UDK: УДК 693.69
The object of research of this article is a new material of finish facades of buildings – facade wallhangings. This material is mainly used in individual and low rise construction. In our country, the use of technology facade wallhangings has not yet received wide spread, so the purpose of the research is detection the positive and negative aspects of use this technology and description of front wallpaper installation technology. In the article the physical and mechanical properties of the facade wallhangings were determined, the analysis of these properties and also comparison facade wallhangings with competitive materials were carry out. The results of the article showed that device technology outside finish of the building using facade wallhangings has significant advantages over its main competitor - plaster, these advantages are plasticity, whereby the cracks not form on the facades of buildings while their settlement, and great resistance to high temperature drops.
UDK: УДК 69.05
The technology of stripping of buildings by method of explosion of load-bearing frames and "cut and take down" technology is considered in this article. Comparison of these methods of demolition of buildings and structures is carried out by analyzing such factors as safety, environmental friendliness, speed and economy. The main advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are listed. The technology of directional explosion is urgent for quickly demolition of buildings and constructions with minimum financial investments, and the "cut and take down" method for safe work in a dense urban environment with minimal impact on the environment. Also relevance of technologies is caused by body height of high-floor construction and increase in number of old buildings which need stripping. As a result, conclusions were drawn about the scope of these methods of dismantling buildings.
UDK: УДК 624.152.634
E.V. Kuznecov, E.N. Sychkina
This article discusses the use of jet grouting technology in a dense housing. It speaks of the beginning of development of this technology. The advantages among their peers, opportunities in the cramped conditions of works, and also refers to the disadvantages of this technology. It describes the facilities of the city of Perm, with the use of jet grouting technology. Available photos using fences pit in the form of jet-grouting of the tongue at the construction of a multifunctional complex «Green Plaza». There is a description of the principle of works for Jet-1 Technology, Jet-2, Jet-3. It describes the operation of the production technology at the construction site, starting with the installation of the drilling tool design position, ending on washing equipment. Presented production work scheme using the rig, with a description of the sequence of the work. Also it refers to the use of Jet grouting under different conditions, and the possibilities of modern technology.
UDK: УДК 624.012.3/.4
The object of research is the concrete mix and its sealing technology. The urgency of the problem is due to the tendency of a monolithic construction. The purpose of this article - the study of the basic methods of compaction of the concrete mix. The article describes the basic properties and characteristics of the concrete mix, a primary form of its seal. It representes the underlying mechanism - a vibrator, dismantles its principle of operation, scope and location. The article also contains a mixture of smoothing technology, given its basic equipment and when they are applied.
UDK: УДК 691.554
This article reflects the technology of applying the finishing of walls liquid wallpaper used in the decoration works, told ecological modern coatings, justified the use of finishing materials, contributing to the development of aesthetic, safety and performance properties for different types of buildings and structures, shows the basic tools and the necessary tools for the application of wallpaper showing the advantages and disadvantages of this coating, giving a complete picture of finishing materials, we used the following methods to analyze in detail the topic of this article: qualitative analysis, induction, synthesis. The paper studies the efficiency of the use of liquid wallpaper in the construction of residential houses and public buildings.
UDK: УДК 69.003
A.A. Zaitsev, A.Е. Petrov, О.V. Petreneva
Concrete structures are one of the basic materials in construction. Together with the concrete is usually used metal armature. But the steel reinforcement has a number of shortcomings and high cost. New materials, such as composite rebar, appear on the trading floor and remove the shortcomings, as well as reduce the cost of construction. This article describes a polymer reinforcement. Also, the basic properties of composite and metal fittings. Compiled table diameters of compliance with full-strength replacement. This is complemented by a comparative analysis of the characteristics of valves, namely by comparing two kinds of cores for tensile strength, elastic modulus, density, diameter, length, corrosion resistance, cost, thermal conductivity, and the convenience of shipping and installation. Also, are the main advantages and disadvantages of composite reinforcement. On this basis, indicated the main lines of the new building material. For example, the foundation slab, measuring 10 by 10 meters, is considered justification for the use of composite reinforcement with economic and engineering viewpoints.
UDK: УДК 629.113
V.S. Ponomarev, V.S. Efimova, S.I. Vakhrushev
The article describes the main types of steel wire ropes, their structure, the materials which they are made of and modern ways to increase their operating characteristics. There are also explores the forces occurring in a double lay rope with organic core, produced the selection of the rope based on forces acting on the polyspast. Taking into account the structure of the steel rope, is calculated the maximum equivalent tension in it, and this value is compared with the maximum allowable tension value in accordance with the labeling group of rope. The calculation scheme of the rope is a rod (the core) working on tension, and a spring (strands) working on torsion, bend and shear, the axes of which is coincide with the axis of the rod. We made calculations with different values of the applied load and came to the conclusion that in the rope occur tensions longer than tensions given in the GOSTs. Therefore it is necessary to increase the strength of the rope without changing the diameter of its strands in order that the rope does not lose its flexibility. It is one of the main directions in the study of the ropes nowadays.
UDK: УДК 698.3
The subject of the article is glass structures of floors and staircases of residential and public premises. The purpose of this study is to study the basic stages of installing floors from three-layer glass panels, to study the basic provisions on the installation of glass stairs, to learn what Triplex and its properties are. Different types of glass floors, their characteristics features are disassembled. It is established that laminated glass, being a fragile material, has properties that are not interior in strength characteristics to metal and concrete structures. Due to its qualities, glass can now be used not only in openings, but also serve as floors, stairs and overlapping, with standing significant loads. Installation of such structures does not cause great difficulties, and triplex is a popular material and a t present it is produced in all major cities of Russia.
UDK: УДК 004.356.2
M. N. Svirskiy
Object of a research is – 3D technologies in a construction. The research purpose consists in the analysis of opportunities of application 3D - technologies in a construction. Relevance of a construction by means of 3D - technologies is caused by the low cost of housing, safety of production, and also speed of construction of houses. Use 3D - technologies gives the chance to build buildings practically of any form. During the analysis processes of construction of houses by means of 3D - seals are considered. Various benefits and defects of application 3D - technologies are revealed and stated. The possibilities of a seal of various designs are also considered by the 3D-printer. The analysis of the software which is used for 3D - modeling and directly control of the printer is made. In article the construction materials used for production of the bearing structures of houses by 3D technology - seals are considered. Reasons for cost efficiency of application 3D - technologies are given. The forecast of development 3D - technologies is made.
UDK: УДК 692.41
A.V. Semenov, V.S. Ivashkin, O.V. Petreneva
The new type of a roofing covering and its feature is considered. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of cool roofs for the city and for individual residential buildings are considered. Comparison of the cities of the United States of America and the Russian Federation on sunshine duration and average temperature in a year is carried out. The efficiency evaluation of application of cool roofs for the city of Krasnodar, by means of such coefficients as: R-value, solar reflectance, infrared emittance is provided. Quotations on creation of a cool roof on the basis of the existing roof with different types of surfaces are considered. The concept of "A winter penalty" and his influence on the choice of roofing material for the cities of Russia is considered.
UDK: УДК 624.154.5
E.S. Sudnitsyna, S.I. Vakhrushev
The article aims at searching new structural and engineering ways to improve the efficiency of pile pressing. The study object is presented by machines and pile pressing units. The study subject is supposed to be the efficiency of pile pressing equipment and the ways to improve it. At present this problem is considered to be one of the most important and urgent issues when constructing and reconstructing foundations. Constant complication of both forms and building parts of modern structures increases the requirements to their basements and foundations to a great extent. According to the building experience, it is the foundation construction field that has the biggest potential to increase the construction efficiency and quality. Moreover, the significance of this problem is explained by a growing volume of works connected with the reconstruction of old buildings and structures, as well as industrial enterprises where a high level of dynamic and noise effects is not acceptable. The application of the existing equipment is restrained due to its structural elements imperfection and insufficient process development of industrial piles installation. Investigating and justifying of pile pressing rational technologies with the help of new equipment make the following article rather urgent. The authors provide a review and a detailed analysis of some methods and ways to increase the performance of pile pressing units. In particular, there are considered methods based on executing special technologies according to a certain sequence of sheet piling operations, as well as ways to increase the machines performance with the help of additional equipment. Special attention is paid to mechanisms comprising different anchoring systems and extra counterweight. The authors give some examples of pile pressing units that meet the requirements of high productivity, speed and efficiency under different soil and climate conditions and can be used during pile-driving works on construction sites. The pile pressing equipment structure, its operation principles and fields of application are described in the course of this study. The conclusions on the development prospects of pile pressing machines and increasing pile pressing efficiency are made. The study also reveals the most perspective systems and methods that meet the requirements of modern construction technologies.
Experience in optimization of constriction machines complex by Dijkstra method on Perm city contraction site
UDK: УДК 69.003.13
S.I. Vakhrushev, E.O. Trenogin
The article gives the calculation of the optimal set of construction machines at the earthworks stage. As an input data used a schedule of earthmoving calculated during the designing of a project for the construction. As well as a set of works on the planning of the territory, temporary roads, removal of surplus earth masses from the construction site, cutting an underburden in the foundation pit, backfilling of the sinuses of the foundation, compaction of backfill soil with a vibratory plate. Object of research is residential complex under construction located in Perm city. In article author demonstrate the use of the method of calculating of optimal contraction machines complex based on Dijkstra method based on the technical and economic indicators obtained in the calculation. The adjusted cost per 1m3 developed soil chosen as the optimization criterion.
T.V. Gudz, A.A. Pikalova
Modern development in urban areas of individual residential development in Russia shows insufficient regulation by the town planning regulations. Balanced development, as a rule, is justified by the initiative of customers or by a successful project solution. The established limit parameters do not form the development of territories, which subsequently adversely affects the aesthetics of development and urban interior, hinders the improvement and maintenance of territories and often puts landowners in unequal conditions. The envisaged parameters of permitted construction do not reflect an integrated approach to the formation of buildings in different urban areas. The purpose of the study is to identify planning methods that affect the development of territories, and to develop approaches that allow for the targeted regulation of building parameters. The article presents an overview of the existing limiting parameters of permitted construction using the example of individual Russian cities. The performed work shows the need to improve the established limit parameters of permitted construction for low-rise residential development.
S.L. Belyaev, N.M. Ovchinnikov, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article deals with different ways of the implementation of the remote control system of the main types of construction machines involved in a process of the construction production,including erecting cranes, front-discharging tractor shovels, push-type scrapers and crane-type excavators.An influenceof the remote-control system on the overall automation level of the processes taking place on a construction site andsuch qualitative featuresas safety, productivity and efficiency was determined.The article touches upon the issue of main development trends of the remote-controlled equipment and perspectives of its use in the process of construction and other engineering activities. Immediate objectives facing science, which will serve as the basis for better automation and robotization of the technical means and complexes used by people in the process of creation of building products,were also studied.
G.V. Vakhrusheva, K.A. Kuchukbaeva, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
Ground anchors are one of methods of a protection of ditches. In this article the analysis of different types of ground anchors, their comparison is carried out, information on application of ground anchors is given, their classification is given, and also the boring method of application of anchors and various technologies of its device explicitly is described: with casing pipe, without obsadka, under clay solution. On the basis of these methods the buroinjektsionny way of the device of ground anchors appeared, in article its merits and demerits are described, information on the modern the buroinjektsionnykh anchors is provided, in particular, the foreign technology of the device of ground anchors "Titan" and its single domestic alternative "Atlas" are considered, the common principle of the device of anchors on both technologies is described, and also distinctiveness of each technology is given.
M.A. Glukhikh, S.I. Vakhrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The question of the stability of tower cranes is still relevant because of some recorded cases of turnover on construction sites. The article deals with possible ways to improve the sustainability of tower cranes. Comparative analysis of the calculation of the safety factor by two ways was conducted. Patent search was conducted. Constructive solutions that increase the safety of the works have been found and described.
The development of standard design and standard of organization on the manufacture and installation of gabled hangar from hardware
E.S. Evdokimova Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The question of building of hangar (within the shortest possible time) for warehouse, trade house, productive area is burning question in modern construction. This question is solved by employment of hardware. The development of standard design and standard of organization on the manufacture and installation of gabled hangar from hardware will make it possible to improve constructive decision, manufacturing technology, to regulate of quality inspection, to assign standards on the foundation’s building and erection work.
M.V. Zakharova, A.B. Ponomaryov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article considers and analyzes the experience of the use of modular construction in Russia and abroad, it formulates main values and disadvantages of using this technology. Summarizing the analysis, conclusions and ways of solving and optimizing of the technology of block-modular construction in Russia are determined in terms of normative technical standardization, construction planning, the most rational application. In Russia much attention today is paid to the use of new technologies that would significantly improve the quality of construction, the speed of payback, and thus minimize the timing of work production. Modular construction combines various technologies prefabricated buildings, and in Russia there is sufficient experience and achievements in the development of volume-block construction. Particular attention to this technology is associated with the need to achieve global goals in our country: to solve the problems of providing the population of Russia with affordable and comfortable housing in the framework of state programs; for rapid construction and restoration of housing destroyed in the event of natural disasters, or the creation of fully functioning temporary mobile buildings and structures; for simplification by unification and standardization of installation works during the reconstruction of buildings and structures, in the construction of special-hazardous and industrial facilities; for transfer to factory conditions, excluding the influence of weather conditions, specialized processes for assembling equipment with heat, water, gas servicies, welding and wet processes; and as a result, the simplification of design due to the creation of typical series of objects and the introduction by manufacturers of databases and product catalogs - unified modules (or modular units).
R.I. Zubairov, T.M. Bochkaryova Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
At present, energy saving tasks are the most acute in modern construction. More than 25% of the total heat losses of the building falls on the foundation, this is a significant figure. Also, it should be noted that in the water-saturated clay soils, widespread in the Perm region, arise the forces of frost heaving. It is the reason for the deformation of the foundation. During the foundation works, it is necessary to take qualitative and effective measures to reduce the heat losses, which simultaneously solve the problem of reducing the impact of the heaving. The article presents recommendations for reducing the heat losses through the foundation part of the building, based on the thermal imaging survey. The design solutions for heat insulation of the foundation are considered taking into account the calculation of the thermal fields on the «Elcut» program and the values of the temperature and heat fluxes in the foundation body are revealed. Based on the results of the calculations, there was performed the comparison of the heat insulation options in terms of the energy efficiency and reducing of the frost heaving forces.
Traditional and modern ways to restore the load-bearing capacity of brick walls in the restoration of cultural heritage sites
Y.R. Ismagilova, D.G. Zolotozubov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
In this article, problems of restoring the bearing capacity of brick walls in buildings that are objects of cultural heritage are considered. An analysis was made of various ways to solve these problems. In particular, traditional and modern methods of reinforcing brickwork are considered. The main disadvantages of restoring the bearing capacity of brick walls with traditional methods, such as the device of the cage, the injection of special solutions and partial or complete replacement of the masonry elements, were revealed. The main problems of the above methods are the impossibility of combining the effective reinforcement of the bearing capacity with the preservation of the external appearance of the building and the minimum labor costs. As an alternative, modern ways of reinforcing brickwork were considered: a patented technology for the use of reinforcing bars and techniques for strengthening the horizontal seam.
M.A. Kobylina, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federatio
Currently monolithic economy is becoming increasingly popular. Construction works of reinforced concrete are conducted continuously all year round. Therefore, ensuring design qualities of concrete and reinforced concrete structures in cold period of the year is important problem. The purpose of this article is showing the current level of domestic technology of winter concreting. This article contains an overview of modern methods for the production of concrete work by construction of buildings and facilities in the wintertime. Mention the characteristics of each method and their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we consider the pros and cons of the use of technology as a whole, based on a comparison of energy intensity and labor costs of each method. The technical and economic comparison of types of winter concreting is presented.
A.A. Koryagin, D.N. Sursanov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Russian Federation, Perm
This article represents the process of reinforcing ground. It describes methods of mounting walls of trenches and slopes for improving the properties of ground by reinforcing elements during the construction works. Each method is briefly described the work technique and the mechanisms used.
Modeling of the emergency mode of electrical heating of concrete using heating wire in the software environment ElectronicsWorkbench 5.12
S.A. Koryagin, S.I. Vahrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Monolithic construction is faced with the problems of providing the necessary temperature regime for hardening and recasting of concrete in winter. One of the technologies of winter concreting is electric heating with the use of heating wire. The article considers the technology of concrete heating by electric wire during winter concreting of thin-walled structures, the criteria for choosing equipment and materials for heating are determined. Recommendations are given on the choice of heating elements and connection schemes, based on the requirements for improving the production of work, optimizing and rational use of labor and material resources, reducing the time for additional work. Within the framework of the work, the risks associated with winter concreting technology using heating wire were assessed. In particular, simulation in the ElectronicsWorkbench 5.12 software environment of an emergency of a heating element break in the overlap area.
P.I. Laishcheva, S.I. Vahrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
This article discusses ways to increase productivity scraper units. More detail the economic and mathematical model scraper trains, reflecting the peculiarities of its process cycle and structure formation of its operating costs. One of the ways to improve the technical and economic indicators scraper units is to increase the traction engine efforts. Through the implementation of the maximum traction scrapers work in the train allows you to increase the volume of soil to be recruited into the bucket. The article compares the results of experiments using the scraper trailed scraper trains and at work with a pusher, which showed an increase in train performance by increasing the traction and ground transportation speed. Techno-economic performance of the train can also be increased through the use of towing devices reloaded (TSDU) by increasing traction qualities. This article analyzes studies that indicate that the scraper trains to cope with this problem more efficiently than traditional scraper units that allows to intensify the production of earthworks and to improve technical and economic indicators.
D.A.Luneva, E.O.Kozhevnikova, S.V.Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Modern innovative 3D-technologies are developed and implemented in various spheres of human activity. Recently, much attention is paid to 3D printing technology in construction, which involves creating a physical object with the help of the 3D printer. One of the directions of this technology - the method of layering extrusion is considered in the article, as well as the application and prospects for the development of this method in the construction field. It is given a brief description and principle of operation of two types of 3D-printer, with the help of which this technology is realized. The main types of materials and their combinations used for 3D printing of buildings and structures are considered. The article has descriptions of developments of foreign companies that realize the construction of houses using 3D printing technologies using various materials. The main problems of practical application and implementation, as well as directions of improving this technology, are revealed.
Y.S. Karagulova, E.A. Nikolenko, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
In this article unique properties of the plaster made using industrial hemp are considered, benefits of such plaster are revealed over regular compositions of construction plasters. Also features of plaster with the content of hemp are considered in article, properties and advantages are given its structure. In article scopes of hemp industrial are reflected in a modern construction, examples of use of plaster in the ancient time are given. Comparison of properties, structures, a scope and service life with similar plaster mixes is made. For descriptive reasons comparison is executed in the form of the table. Shortcomings of use of plaster structure with hemp in a daily construction are noted. The conclusion is drawn on efficiency of use of plaster, on the importance of content of hempy fibers as a part of plaster mix.
I. I. Okyntsov, E.N. Sychkina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
Increasing requirements for energy efficiency of buildings make it necessary to develop new or modernize existing enclosing structures. The authors present the prerequisites for the development of energy-efficient construction, briefly review the regulatory framework in the field of energy-efficient construction, and consider the main trends in its development. The classifications of energy efficiency buildings used in Russia and abroad are analyzed, their strengths and weaknesses are revealed. Rational measures are taken to increase the energy efficiency of the building in the climatic conditions of the northern regions. Presented are common designs of the blind section of the outer wall, allowing to provide a high R-vaule. The advantages and disadvantages of these wall structures as applied to the climatic conditions of the Perm Region are analyzed.
E.A. Parshakova, O.V. Shardina, S.V. Kaloshina - Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation.
In today's world there is a number of innovations in the construction of water areas. Undergoes significant changes in bank stabilization technology. This article focuses on traditional and new forms of strengthening the coast in sea areas with a view to selecting the most effective sea coast protection technology. It is a comparison of positive and negative qualities of both technologies. The question of the choice of technology to strengthen the coast, depending on the specific conditions of the construction. It is found that the new design of the steel enclosure shells in some cases allows to achieve better results than conventional sheet piling. Examples of constructed objects construction in the sea area to the need to strengthen the bank. Listed as other methods of strengthening the coast. Affected by factors that may affect the deformation of the coast in marine waters.
E.N. Devyatkova, D.S. Ryzhkov, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The development of underground spaces is one of the most important issues related to the rational management of territories and the possibility of expanding the space in the vertical direction. This article contains The classification of underground structures according to the purpose, the location in the planning structure of the city, the depth of the location, the location relative to existing buildings. In the course of the work, the main advantages and disadvantages of underground construction were considered. Shown the importance of geomechanical works.disclosed the classification of geotechnical monitoring and its sections. Studied The risks (construction, ecological, organizational) that may arise in the course of works.
E.S. Sudnitsyna, Y.S. Izbitskaya, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The purpose of writing this article to analyze the method of longitudinal sliding, used in the construction of bridge spans. The object of study in this article longitudinal sliding is of the spans of bridges. The subject of the study will be the method of longitudinal sliding, allowing to construct spans in a modern way. Building of bridges is one of the most difficult and expensive problems to be solved in the process of construction of artificial structures. Recently, due to the density of building in urban areas, as well as a large number of railways, roads and sea transport, the movement of which is not acceptable to interrupt, it is necessary to provide more efficient and convenient methods for the construction of bridges in a short period of time. Research of rational technology of construction of bridge spans using this modern method as a method of longitudinal sliding determines the relevance of this article. In the process of studying the longitudinal sliding superstructures technology such steps as: pre-assembly of superstructures, sliding of superstructures on the bridge piers are covered. Based on the study of the technology, the conclusion about the fit of using this method in urban areas, with large amounts of water space and large spans of the bridge construction, as well as about the prospects of development of the method in Russia and abroad was made.
The review of employment of injectable waterproofing during reconstruction of buildings and structures
M.A. Bezgodov, R.D. Urmancheev PermNational Research PolytechnicUniversity, Perm, Russian Federation;
The article represents a description review of technology of injectable waterproofing during reconstruction of buildings and structures. The purpose of research is analysis technology of foundation repair by using this technology. It is reported that technical publication isn’t valid. In the article patent search is offered for determining the relevance of the research. Much attention is given to development of technology of injectable waterproofing: scientific elaboration and employment of new materials, increasing
K.S. Sheptunova, S.I. Vahrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article describes reason of traumatism at the building site, discusses negative influence of load swing, in construction and hoisting work. Also there are some series of events to prevent the load swing presented. One of those ways in development of modern construction equipment is a device development, that helps increase safety and reliability and improve productivity. In the article there are results of researching the influence of construction shown. The author shows the mechanical damper like light weight added, which decrease period of oscillation flexible pendant to the amount, depends on the place of damper through the length of pendant. In the article the problem of holding comparison between inventions, describing ways, they works, pointing their distinctions and noticing their limitations. Much attention is given to invention, in which the operation principle is the gyroscopic inertia. Also is given a comparison of ways to prevent the load swing on flexible pendant by influence at controls of crane and by using the computer systems, which predict the value of horizontal displacement of joint pendent to the jib in consequence of jib deformations under the influence of the load weight and gives a signals to controls. The main goal of research is analysis and finding the most effective ways to damp load vibrations, the most effective inventions, created to stop the load and also to provide reliability, safety and efficiency construction works at the building site.
Underground space development for the building subject to reconstruction. Analysis of publications and patent research
Y.E. Yazev, O.V. Petreneva Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article sets the task of analysis of technologies for the construction and deepening of subterranean part of buildings subject to reconstruction, and the primary possibility of using the technologies under consideration is determined in the case of the culture center at 14 Okulova St. Perm. It conducted detailed introduction to scientific, technical and patent information on the research topic: it was used scientific and educational materials, articles in periodicals of the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and also dissertations, author’s abstract and materials of webinars; about ten patents of the Russian Federation were selected it the patent searches process. The relevance of the problem is due to lack of development area (which includes open areas for parking) and difficulty of territory development having geological profile. This kind of construction creates additional useful areas under restrained urban conditions, allows to strengthen existing foundations and to transmit loads to more reliable subsoil. The main development of underground space trends for the buildings subject to reconstruction were determined, and also the most perspective directions were estimated on this topic. The article parses terminology of this research topic and presents the classification of the top-down construction method. It considered various methods of constructing an underground space including various modifications top-down and semi-down construction methods. It was identified distinctive features, disadvantages and advantages of some technological and structural concept, and also it conducted technical comparison between then.