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Рубрика: Инженерная геология


The questions of reclamation of deposits of construction limestone

UDK: 553.636
A.V. Garifulova, A.К. Alvanian
the article suggests measures on land recultivation and environmental protection on the elimination of Luniewskogo career.
4 pag.


The study of swelling clay soils as foundations of structures

UDK: 624.131.414.3
I.А. Zvereva, D.S. Lbova, V.I. Kachenov
the article presents data on the swelling of clay soils kaolinite and montmorillonite composition depending on their original density, particle size distribution and mineral composition.
4 pag.


About change of mechanical properties of clays at technogenic contamination

UDK: 624.131.439
K.V. Kasatkina, V.V. Seridin
it is experimentally established that with increasing content of pore fluids in clays, the cohesion increases and internal friction angle are reduced. When contamination of clays by hydrocarbons in the formation of their strength properties of the decisive role played by the viscosity of the pore fluid.
4 pag.


About Mechanical properties of the clays in conditions of petroleum-refining enterprises

UDK: 624.131.439
A.S. Matsievskij, M.V. Pashkov, V.V. Seridin
The experimental data about oil influence on the strength properties of bentonite clays were submitted. Comparing the values of cohesion of clay, where the pore solution is water and engine oil, we observe that the value of the cohesion is reduced in five times and, on the contrary, the internal friction angle takes the high value in clays where the pore solution is an engine oil.
4 pag.


Prospects of resource potential of underground water Russia

UDK: 628.1 (624.154.5)
P.V. Nekrasrov
The trend of increasing world population leads to many problems, one of which is an increase of fresh drinking water shortage. By 2030, the planet will face a 40% shortage of fresh water, if we do not dramatically improve the management of this valuable resource. Such a conclusion was made in the report, «Water for Sustainable Peace», the United Nations 2015.
5 pag.


The division into districts of territory for the rational distribution of construction objects

UDK: 624.131.8
M.A. Nekrasov, V.V. Seridin
Developed a method of engineering-geological zoning based on multidimensional probabilistic-statistical evaluation of classification rate Z obtained by calculating the discriminant functions. The implementation of this approach in practice will improve the reliability and validity of engineering geological maps and charts
4 pag.


The study of piping`s processes in soil foundations of roads

UDK: 624.131.1
Zh.Iu. Ponomareva, D.M. Dimuhametov
Physical descriptions of sandy material are Studied, experiments are conducted physical laboratory design during vertical filtration, dependences are set between time, by volume of bearing-out and by deformation of surface.
4 pag.


The harmful effect of groundwater on foundations in Perm

UDK: 624.131.6
E.L. Pronicheva
This is an article about aggressiveness of groundwater, its manifestations and localization on the territory of Perm. The purpose of research was to determine different types of aggressive water and its locations. Described mechanisms of action of various reagents on the material of foundations. It was determined that on the territory of the Perm the study of carbon dioxide and sulfate aggressiveness of underground water deserves special attention. Sulfate aggressiveness manifested great way on the territory of Motovilikhinsky district. Carbon dioxide type of aggression presented in the Kirovsky, Motovilikhinsky districts of Perm. Long-term monitoring of groundwater on the territory of Perm indicates that the chemical composition of these waters is unstable, water are metamorphisize in connection with human activities. It is important that the aggressiveness of groundwater in Perm, though not a high priority, but is becoming increasingly important.
4 pag.


Continied of the hydrogeochemical research source boundary Pernayag

UDK: 556.314
R.V. Romanyuk
The results of repeated sampling of hydrogeochemical unknown spring in Gaynsky District of Perm Krai, nicknamed by locals holy source for its healing properties.. Ecologically, the source refers to the prosperous - low population density, lack of industrial enterprises. Hydrogeologically he is confined to the eastern European basin system to Veslyanskomu basin, aquifer Middle Jurassic. The chemical composition of spring waters was studied in two trials in the summer and in the winter time. As a result of studies, increased silver content was found in the water source. In further detailed hydrogeological studies it gives the possibility of opening a new hydrogeochemical provinces with a high silver content and high-quality water for drinking water supply.
4 pag.


The study of physical-chemical properties of the clay in the conditions of salt contamination

UDK: 624.131.41
V.V. Seridin, N.A. Medvedeva, Iu.O. Malgina, T.A. Peshkova
it was established experimentally that the Zeta potential of kaolinite in the clay is two times higher than in montmorillonite clay, but does not exceed ξ<30 mV. In the studied mixtures observed molecular attraction of colloids in montmorillonite and kaolinite clays, as evidenced by the values of ξ<30 mV.
5 pag.


Engineering-geological conditions of the area of construction in the Perm region

UDK: 624.131.1
O.S. Siteva, A.V. Andrianov, V.V. Seridin
based on the survey assessed the engineering-geological conditions of land for the construction of a residential house in the Perm region. Obtained following engineering-geological elements (EGE) EGE 1 - loam firm-stiff (aQ); EGE 2 - loam soft-firm (aQ); EGE 3 - loam very soft-firm (aQ).
4 pag.


Engineering-geological characteristics of the area of construction of oil deposits

UDK: 624.131.1
K.A. Tamoian, V.V. Seridin
studied engineering-geological conditions of the deposit, isolated engineering-geological elements, given the basic physical and mechanical properties of soils.
4 pag.


About modelling of piping`s processes in soil foundations of structures

UDK: 624.131.1
R.R. Faizov, D.M. Dimuhametov
Quantitative suffusion forecast is based on a mathematical or physical models of varying degrees of complexity, but their correct display requires a serious qualitative analysis of the geological conditions of the development process, understanding the mechanism and its interaction with harakte¬ra technosphere. Projections, based on field experiments are characterized by high reliability, so based on the experience of physical modeling suffusion processes has been developed and tested the filter tray suffusion of laboratory simulation in the sandy soil. Carried out in a filtration device experiences allow us to trace the development stage suffusion in sandy soils, to quantify the rate of formation of voids and gaps in the soil strata conditions close to natural. Mathematical processing of the results was carried out.
5 pag.


The study of stress state of rocks at the base of buildings

UDK: 624.121
A.S. Khrulev, V.V. Seridin
The formation of the strength, deformation and physical properties of fine-grained soil are somewhat dif-ferent from the formation of the same properties in the rock and semi rock. When loading the body around the defect occurs stress concentration that causes growth and dis-gation of cracks. This process leads to the for-mation of the main crack of rock destruction.It was established experimentally that the temperature of the mate-rial (∆t) in the main zone of fracture is controlled by material type and stress state. With increasing rock strength ∆t increases. Under uniaxial tension observed minimum value of ∆t, and under uniaxial compression ∆t naturally increases.
4 pag.


The evaluation of deposit of gypsum plaster

UDK: 624.138
E.A. Churakova, A.К. Alvanian
the article presents the engineering-geological assessment Seledtskogo deposits of gypsum. It is shown that sakartveloshi depends on the capacity of overburden.
4 pag.


Forecast of strength properties of soils as foundations of structures

UDK: 624.131
M.R. Yadzinskaya, V.V. Seridin
it was established experimentally that when contaminated clay soils by the oil to 2.5% in them the processes of coagulation. The regularities of changes in strength properties of clay soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. Developed mathematical models to predict adhesion and angle of internal friction of clays.
4 pag.


The division into districts of territory of building industrial objects

UDK: 624.138
M.R. Yadzinskaya, V.V. Seridin
the aim is regionalization of the area based on multivariate statistical evaluation of classification indicator. The technique of zoning is reduced to the classification rate (CR), estimates of multivariate statistical criterion, the justification of the boundary values of Cu, preparation of model zoning and the separation of taxa. As classification metric can be used multivariate statistical criterion of R discriminant functions.
4 pag.


Research of loss of mass of substance in the compression of clays

UDK: УДК 624.131.43
A.V. Anukhina, M.V. Fedorov, V.V. Seredin, I.I. Minkevich
When rocks are loaded, stress concentration appears around defects leading to growth and spread of fractures. Hypothesized, that the destruction of rocks takes place in two stages: initially formed backbone fracture gap, then the rock is a shift for this crack. Depending on the stresses applied to the ground in the fracture zone, microdeformation processes take place between the structural segregations, a certain morphology of the crack surface is formed, sand of friction appears, the temperature of the material changes, which leads to a change in the phase state of the soil. Under these conditions, the water content of the clays must vary depending on the pressures applied to the ground. However, experimental information on this issue is not enough. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the regularities of the change in the content (mass) of water in clays, depending on the pressures exerted on the clay sample. It was experimentally established that the content of loosely bound and firmly bound forms of water, as well as of hydroxyl groups and the mass of recrystallization of minerals, is controlled not only by the composition, structure and properties of the crystal lattice of montmorillonite and kaolinite clay, but also by the amount of pressures to which the soil sample was subjected. With increasing pressure, the loss of mass of firmly bound water increases. For loosely bound water, the relationship between pressure and mass loss could not be established. It was found that the total loss of water mass with increasing stresses in kaolinite clay is less (m = 13.2%) than in montmorillonite clay (m = 16.9%).
7 pag.


Nature of the soil strength of the Upper Permian redstone formation

UDK: УДК 624.131.43
Sh.Kh. Gainanov, A.V. Kozminykh, A.V. Trusova
The object of investigation is the soil strength of the Upper Permian redstone formation. The aim of the study is to classify sand and clay rocks of the formation and to reveal the regularities of formation of soil strength. A detailed study of the structure of the rocks was carried out in the rock sections that were selected in the rock basses of the Kama basin and its confluents. To assess the effect of the rock structure on the soil strength were determined that physical and mechanical properties, such as density, poriness, softening, water permeability and unconfined compressive strength. The classification of sand and clay rocks of the redstone formation was based on structural and texture features, which are determined by the facies environment. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the properties of sandstones are affected by the type of cementitious agent, and the properties of clays determine their texture. The resulting classification makes it possible to correctly compare the rocks of one lithological composition.
7 pag.


The effect of NaCI concentration on the physico-chemical properties of clays

UDK: УДК 624.131.43
I.А. Zvereva, V.I. Kachenov
The article presents data on the swelling of clay soils of kaolinite and montmorillonite compositions, depending on the concentration of brine (15%, 30%, 35%). The nature of swelling of clays is associated with the formation of loosely bound water in the diffuse layer of the colloid micelle. As a result of the swelling in the 30% brine solution, the diffusion layer has the maximum power, the cations from the solution compensate for all colloid charges, hence the swelling value is of the greatest importance. In kaolinite clay, the increase in the concentration of the salt (C) solution occurs uniformly in time (t), in montmorillonite clay, the time (t) of the formation of the maximum value of the swelling strain decreases with increasing concentration of the salt (C) solution. Taking into account the mineral and granulometric composition of clays, the swelling deformation in Lobanovsky montmorillonite is less than in kaolinites.
5 pag.


The study of sorption processes in the clay soils

UDK: УДК 624.131.41
V.V. Seredin, A.A. Kashevarova
montmorillonite and kaolinite clays were the object of the study. The aim of this work is to study the effect of pressure on the adsorption properties of clays. The methodology and results of the studies include: preparation of clay samples, compression under pressure, granulometric, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analyzes, and experimental data processing. The study found that changes in the sorption activity of kaolinite and montmorillonite clays occur due to a change in the structure of clay particles, the crystal lattice of minerals, and the formation of additional active centers on their surfaces. When the clay is compressed, on the one hand, the processes of coarsening of clay particles proceed, which should lead to a decrease in sorption capacity. On the other hand, as the pressure increases, the structure of clay particles changes, which contributes to the formation of additional active centers on the surface of the crystal and colloid, which leads to an increase in the sorption capacity of clays and, as a consequence, to an increase in the loss of bound water masses.
4 pag.


The influence of the type of the pore solution on the clays physico-chemical properties

UDK: УДК 624.131.43
D.S. Lbova, V.I. Kachenov
in article the data on swelling kaolinite clay depending on the initial densities and different pH values. The development of industrial production, including the development of new oil fields, leads to the increase of technogenic load on the natural environment. Waste stored at the earth's surface (waste dumps, slurry pits, regulated discharges) have a negative impact not only human health, but also alter the properties of soils as foundations of structures, which leads to emergency situations on the objects of industrial infrastructure [7].  The study of properties of soils exposed to technogenic impact engaged Sergeev E. M [3], Trofimov V. T., Korolev V. And [8], Seredin V. V., V. I. Kochenov, Sitawa O. s [4,5,6]. Therefore the aim of this work is to study the effect of pH of pore fluid on the swelling deformation of a kaolinite clay.  The object of study – clay kaolinite composition. 
5 pag.


The influence of tectonic fracturing of local structures on the physico-mechanical properties of soils

UDK: УДК 624.154.5
K.V. Lokteev, Sh.H. Gaynanov
This paper focuses on the influence of tectonic fractures on the physico-mechanical properties of soils on the example of Opalikhinskaya and Perm local structures. The submissions by the differences of properties in the fractured zones and in whole areas of the structure. The method of allocation of cracks in local structures.
11 pag.


The distribution of hydrocarbons in the sands

UDK: УДК 624.131.43
A.S. Matsievskij, V.V. Seridin
Presents the results of experimental determination of capacity characteristics of sand of various granulometric composition with their contamination with motor oil "LUKOIL Moto 2T". It was established experimentally that the filtration of oil on the thickness of the sand affected the capacity of the layer of capillary-suspended moisture for coarse sand, the capacity of the capillary layer has decreased by 10 cm, average 15 cm, 20 cm for small It is revealed that the capillary moisture content has a significant resistance oil filtration motor section is thicker and the dirt can be a “masloprom” thus preventing the underlying strata and groundwater from hydrocarbon pollution. Found that the engine oil in the section of soil column is distributed evenly to the level of capillary hanging water, in front of which, there is a process of its accumulation. In the rough Sands of the oil content on the “masloprom” is mm=4,28% (with an average of 2.86%) in the major mm=3,97% (with an average of 3.23%) in medium size mm=7,73% (average of 2.26%) and minor mm=10,44% (with an average of 2.81%).
5 pag.


Evaluation of van der Waals forces on the surfaces of clay particles

UDK: 624.131.41
M.V. Fedorov, A.V. Anukhina, V.V. Seredin, I.V. Lunegov
Strength of the soil and the nature of its deformation depends on the strength of the structural links between the particles, grains and aggregates in the soil. Despite detailed studies of clays, the question of evaluating the forces of electrostatic interaction between clay colloids has not been studied sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of the work is to evaluate the adhesion forces on the surface of colloids of kaolinite clay upon its compression. Pre-prepared samples of kaolinite clay were studied on an atomic force microscope in fields of view from 50x50 to 1x1 mkm. As a result of the work, the dependence of the change in adhesion forces of kaolinite clay on the degree of its compaction. The statistical relationships between these indices have been revealed, which allow predicting the adhesion force on the surface of colloids and the material of the binding colloids depending on the compression force of kaolinite clay.
5 pag.


The studies of the distribution of fine sands field capacity

UDK: 624.131.43
A.A. Ivanchenkov, M.F. Leonovitch
Sandy ground is a loose rock that consists of sandy and dusty particles. These soils are widespread. In Russia, the territory occupied by sandy soils is 1850 km2. The topicality of this topic is that the strength and deformation characteristics of these soils largely depend on moisture, filtration abilities, capillary properties, etc. Therefore, in the case of engineering and geological surveys on the road, in the search for land reclamation, the determination of the depth of the foundations, the design of waterproofing and drainage, the importance of the soil moisture index plays a special role. In this paper, the results of experimental studies of the moisture capacity of fine-grained sandy soil are presented. For testing, the sandy soil was selected in the Upper Kurya area of the city of Perm.
5 pag.


Approbation of the methodology of calculation of diameters of the karst holes

UDK: 624.131.432
D.R. Zolotarev, I.I. Kapatskaia
Karst is one of the most dangerous natural processes on Earth because it may appear sudden through of the holes and settlements of the earth’s ground, sometimes reaching 50-100 meters and more in diameter and in depth. The article presents the results of testing the methodology of calculation of diameters of the karst holes in the city of Kungur. The article acquaints us with theoretical computation method of V.V. Tolmachev, G.M. Troitskiy, V.P. Khomenko (1986). The object of the research is karst massifs of the city of Kungur. The subject of the research is the regularity of the formation of karst holes in the conditions of karst formation. Exploring has allowed to establish whether the technique gives an excess in the morphometry of the karst holes in compared with the mapped holes.
5 pag.


The formation of the electrokinetic potential of clay in a variety of environments

UDK: 624.131.413
V.V. Seridin, N.A. Medvedeva, Yu.O. Malgina, T.A. Peshkova Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation
The values of clays suspensions optical density of the Lobanovsky montmorillonite, Alexanderovsky kaolinite, Chelyabinsky and kaolinite in the pH range from 2 to 12. Defined the intervals of clay suspensions greatest aggregate stability in this range (pH 6 to 9). The effect of the clays polydisperse composition on aggregate stability was defined. Plots of optical density (A) from pH was made. The influence of pH on the electrokinetic potential values of montmorillonite and kaolinite clay particles in aqueous suspensions was defined. Established that increasing acidity leads to to neutralize (compensate for) the negative surface charge of clay particles by ions H+, which is realized by reduction of the Zeta-potential in magnitude and as a result in coagulation of clay particles, while by reducing the acidity of the particle surface is charged more negatively.
6 pag.


The formation microaggregate composition of clays during their compression

UDK: 624.131.225
T.Ju. Parshina, V.V. Seridin Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation
The aim of this work is to study the effect of pressure on change fractional composition of clays. The dependences of changes in the content of fractions <0.1 µm 0,2-0,5 µm 0,5-1 µm, 1-2 µm, 2-5 µm, 5-50 µm for the kaolinite and montmorillonite with increasing pressure. Obtained statistically significant regression model describing the pressure effect on the change fractional the composition of the clays. It is shown that with increasing pressure the contents of fractions of 0.1-5 µm is reduced, and the fraction of 5-50 µm, on the contrary, increases.
6 pag.


Mechanism of suffusion removal of sand particles during vertical filtering

UDK: 624.131.432
Zh. Ju. Ponomareva, D.M. Dimuhametov Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation;
The methodology of experiments was aimed at creating the conditions suffusion of dip formation close to the actual processes developing in the areas of urban water-bearing defects communications. The experiments were carried out in laboratory equipment of the Department of engineering Geology and subsoil protection, Perm state University. The experiments of the physical laboratory modeling of the vertical filtering, a comparative analysis of the process at different capacity of the soil, the dependence between time, amount of removal and the relative deformation of the surface. For the investigated sandy soil, physical properties are determined-granulometric composition, density by the cutting ring method, angle of natural slope in the natural state and under water. Calculated an additional indicator suffusion takeaway – the value of the critical volume of soil that indicates the beginning of a process on the surface. The described sequence of the process of suffusion removal of fixed boundary conditions and symptoms-indicators.
5 pag.


The study of water holding capacity medium-grained sands

UDK: 624.131.43
R.D. Khalimanovich, M.F. Leonovitch Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russia
The article is devoted to the study of the moisture capacity of medium-grained sandy soils. Samples of sandy soil in the Upper Kurya area of the city of Perm were taken for research. The sandy soil is mainly represented by medium-, fine- and fine-grained fractions. The subject of the study is a medium-grained sandy soil represented by one fraction. For this fraction, humidity is established along the section and 3 moisture zones are identified: constant humidity, transition zone and maximum humidity. The total moisture capacity (Wt = 22.3%) and incomplete hygroscopic moisture capacity (Wg = 0.3%) was determined. The results on height and speed of capillary uplift are obtained. The maximum height of the capillary rise was 126 mm in 72 hours. The rate of capillary uplift was maximum in the first hours, during the following hours it practically did not change and stopped after 72 hours.
4 pag.


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