Колонка редактора - Eng
Выпуск №9: По материалам IX Всероссийской молодежной конференции аспирантов, молодых ученых и студентов «СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ. ТЕОРИЯ И ПРАКТИКА», (Часть II ,октябрь, 2017)
Градостроительство. Теория развития города. Теория и история архитектуры, реконструкция и реставрация архитектурного наследия
K.A. Azanov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article discusses the issue of preservation of cultural heritage the method of their conversion. The object of study is the renovation of the former cafe "Vremena goda" in Moscow. The work purpose - studying of modern methods of renovation. In the process the work was carried out theoretical research of modern trends in the functional conversion of buildings and their introduction in the existing urban environment. A brief overview of the history of the café. Special attention is given to analysis of the work for renovation of the facility. In conclusion it is emphasized the possibility of the application of given methods of renovation in the Russian reality.
L.V. Sosnovskikh, А.А. Olenyova Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
As the world experience shows, the underground space development makes it possible to solve the problem of construction in cramped or restricted conditions. Increasingly, there arises the necessity to "fit" a building into the historical center or add the new volume to the existing structure without disturbing the visual perception of the surrounding urban environment. The rational penetration of new volumes under the ground, carried out in compliance with all regulatory requirements, gives public buildings a special charm, grants them a "new life" and attracts visitors of various social groups. However, in the normative documents on territorial planning, many issues related to the erection of such structures have not been regulated yet. The article deals with the experience of in-depth public spaces of atrium-type both in Russia and abroad; the authors describe space-planning and constructive solutions for such objects. The review of normative documents on this subject is performed. The tasks for further research are set.
Transport Network Case Study section of the street Chkalov city of Perm from the intersection with the street Kuibyshev Street to the intersection with Geroev Hassan
M.V. Khmyz, S.I. Vakhrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article deals with the question of transport networks high efficiency and safety ensuring. This question is relevant because most of the large cities are faced with the traffic jams formation problem. The article investigates the transport network of the street Chkalov city of Perm. The data of the analytical center of the Permian traffic information "Radar" on the traffic volume on the busiest sites on the street Chkalov. The aim of the study is to provide a safe and efficient transport network in the street Chkalov city of Perm. The most loaded section of the street Chkalov, from its intersection with the street Kuibyshev to the intersection with the street Geroev Hassan was selected to study. The comparative analysis of the bandwidth and speed of traffic calculation was conducted. Spend a patent search traffic light cycle regulation, the density of the flow control systems as well as systems of multi-level transport interchanges for urban development. Based on the study, it is found that the transport network of the street Chkalov is unable today to handle traffic flow passing over it. As a solution to this problem have been proposed the following solutions: increase the number of lanes to four, the use of innovative technologies for the control of traffic light cycle, depending on the workload of the street, as well as the construction of multi-level junction instead of existing traffic interchanges.
L.V. Sosnovskikh, M.D. Cherkasova, N.V. Sirina, A.I. Usynina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
During preparation for The XXII Winter Olympic games in Sochi 800 capital construction projects have been built, among them there are unique sporting venues and infrastructure facilities. For the first time in the history of the world Olympic Movement all sports constructions and hotels for athletes and guests have been located in one city. Scales of the transformations which are carried out to the Olympic Games are surprising and delight both to Russians and to world community. The actual costs of objects of the Sochi Olympic Games have significantly surpassed the expected sizes. Paybacks of invested funds are a controversial issue for all Olympic capitals among which Sochi isn't an exception. In article the sporting and infrastructure facilities built in the course to preparation for the Olympic Games-2014 are described, the reasons of their high cost are analyzed, the prospects of effective using of Olympic venues are discussed. Construction of the Olympic Sochi has allowed to get vast experience of construction of unique objects which can be used further by the Russian town-planners, architects, designers, builders.
Строительная механика. Моделирование физических процессов строительства. Строительные конструкции зданий и сооружений
Bobeshko E.S., Makovetsky O.A. Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article is devoted to the question of constructing an artificial foundation "structural geomass" as a horizontal geotechnical barrier in conditions of constrained construction. The authors considered possible causes of additional sedimentation of neighboring buildings, technology of jet cementation, its main parameters and advantages. The problems of designing the "structural geomass" have been identified the urgency of the application of the geotechnical barrier to exclude sediments, additional deformations of the bases and bearing structures of the neighboring building has been analyzed. The goals and objectives of the research are defined, the object and subject of research are identified, as well as monitoring methods as the very design of the geotechnical barrier, which consist in determining the geometric dimensions and physico-mechanical characteristics of the material of ground-cement elements GCE and the condition of the buildings near the new construction site.
M. A. Vodiannikov, G. G. Kashevarova, P. S. Shtro Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
This article gives an overview of the existing problems with the long-term operation of glued wooden structures and components of their interface in an aggressive environment. Comparison of the experiments on the determination of the ultimate load on the nugget joint. This paper includes calculation results for dowel connections of wood structures using steel and carbon fiber reinforced plastic cylindrical dowel pins in accordance with applicable regulatory documents. Determination of bearing load capacity of connections is defined. The comparative characteristic is based on the theory of deformability and load-bearing capacity of the joint when the wood of the middle element is destroyed or the dowel pins. Dependence diagrams are shown; comparative analysis of the results obtained is conducted. Conclusions on the possibility and expediency of graphite composites in the design of joints glued wooden structures are done.
E.V. Zakonova, V.I. Kleveko Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
One of the solutions to the problem of pedestrian safety in the streets of modern cities is the construction of pedestrian crossings. The process of their construction, often accompanied by the need for overlapping roads. This leads to disruption of traffic, the appearance of traffic jams. The period of installation of the span structure directly depends on its weight. To reduce the value of the latter by a factor of several by completing the construction of a span structure from modern polymer composite materials (PCM). A study was made of a pedestrian span standing in the form of a truss made of fiberglass pipes, the experimental design of which was taken from existing metal trusses. This article presents the procedure for conducting research work: selection of dimensions, basic calculations and results for each of them. At the end, the total weight of the calculated fiberglass truss is compared with its analog of steel profiles.
Monitoring of a vertical geotechnical barrier in the conditions of the constrained urban development
Zakharova M.S., Makovetsky O.A. Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
The article is devoted to the issue of monitoring the behavior of a vertical geotechnical barrier made using the diaphragm wall technology. The authors consider the methods of the device and the conditions for securing the diaphragm wall. The principle of geodetic monitoring of the diaphragm wall has been studied in cramped conditions. The effectiveness of this method of control in ensuring the safety of the construction site and the environment is assessed. The object and subject of the research are defined, the goals and objectives of the research are outlined, as well as methods for achieving the stated goal.
М.P. Son, А.D. Zemlyanukhin Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
As the world practice of construction shows, flange connections are the most practical solution from the point of view of economy, speed of installation and evaluation of connection quality of elements. However, in Russia there is no established base for designing and testing flange connections. Also produced in Russia long products do not allow you to design a flange connection without additional reinforcement of the connected elements. That also increases labor costs and complicates the design. At the moment, a new assortment of I-beams is being developed, which will allow designing flanged connections with high loads. In parallel with this, the problem of lack of normative literature arises, and the use of foreign literature contradicts the established design principles in Russia, namely, the use of metal in the zone of plastic deformations. If there is plastic deformation in the nodes, the deformability of the whole frame of the building will increase, which also cannot be ignored. To develop new normative literature, it will be necessary to conduct various studies related to field trials, analysis of foreign experience and mathematical models performed in various computational complexes.
A.S. Asanova, D.G. Zolotozubov
To date, а significant part of housing stock needs a reconstruction today. Despite the part of this housing stock is in solid buildings which don’t require the overhaul it doesn’t meet requirements of operation and requires reorganization. Reconstruction consists of a complex of construction works and organizational arrangements which entail an increase the load on the foundation which is the most important element of the building ensuring its durability. That’s why issues of strengthening and reconstruction of foundations are important. The relevance of this article is due to the need to generalize knowledge which related to strengthening and reconstruction of prefabricated shallow foundations which have been used in construction since 1950. Advantages and disadvantages of these foundations are considered in this article. Traditional and modern technologies to increase the bearing capacity of prefabricated foundations are described. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are analyzed.
M.I. Kudasheva, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
During construction in the conditions of the existing historical buildings, one of the main tasks is to reduce the impact on the buildings located near the construction site. Currently, different software systems are used to solve complex geotechnical problems in most cases. Plaxis is one of the most widely used software complexes for creating complex soil models. This article considers the problem of choice a soil model for geotechnical calculations. In particular, it produced an analytical comparison of elastoplastic soil Mohr-Coulomb model and most complex Hardening Soil model, offered in the program Plaxis complex. Also in the article are given all the input parameters used for these soil models. Accumulation of data on the successful use of these soil models can help in modeling new tasks.
I.V. Ofrikhter, A.V. Zakharov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Nowadays, the need for thermal energy is provided mainly by non-renewable sources. The cost of energy resources is constantly growing. In this regard, great interest is turned to such methods as the generation of thermal energy with the use of a thermal ground pumps. However, for the calculation of such systems, thermal properties of soils are required. In existing domestic regulatory documents there is no method of determining thermal properties of soils. This paper is devoted to the problem of determining the thermal properties of unfrozen clay soils under laboratory conditions. The existing methods of conducting laboratory experiments are presented and one of them is chosen. Materials and equipment necessary for testing are described. A technological sequence of experiments to determine the thermal conductivity of clay soil was developed.
D. V. Oshchepkov, T. M. Bochkareva Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
At the stage of the foundation work, one of the important activities of which depends largely on the quality of the foundations and load transmission from the foot to the base of the foundation, it is the contrivance foundation mattress. The article deals with the existing methods of ballast for foundations, projected as a constructive, in the case of sand, crushed stone and lean concrete, and training that reduce foundation settlement of buildings and structures, to increase their stableness and bearing capability. The authors developed a classification of methods for ballasts device 3 main types: "classic" ballasts under the foundation, ballasts using geosynthetic materials and slabby. The recommendations for the use of the materials used for the creation of ballast, and methods of contrivance, depending on the geological conditions of the construction area, types of foundations and lack of space of building area. Based on the study and analysis of the test question formulated reasons for the low applicability of geosynthetic materials and designs of plate used as preparations for foundations; formulated directions for further research in this area.
The planning and preparation of tests of horizontally reinforced soil samples on triaxial test system
M.V. Rubtsova, V.I. Kleveko Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Today geosynthetic materials have an important role in geotechnics. Depending on the type (geotextile, geogrid, geomat, geomembrane and others) geosynthetics can perform different functions: reinforcement, filtration, drainage, waterproofing, separation. The study of the influence of geosynthetic materials on soil characteristics is conducted by scientists from different cities of the world. Many of them pay special attention to tests of reinforced sand soil on triaxial test system. While scientific papers on triaxial testing of reinforced clay soil are much less common. The paper a technique for conducting an experiment using triaxial test system is presented. Moreover, preparatory measures to determine the physical characteristics of the soil of future samples are described. Also, the paper contains a brief analysis of the study of this area.
Derivation of the dependence of the relative elongation arising in the strain gauge sensor on its geometric parameters
S.S. Lashova, V.I. Kleveko Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
To assess the stress-strain state of the reinforcing layer, it is necessary to directly measure stresses in geosynthetic interlayers. When measuring the stress-strain state of structures and materials, the tensometric method is often referred to. The current strain gages have a lower maximum elongation than the elongation occurring in the geosynthetic interlayer, therefore, there is a need to develop an appropriate load cell. In this paper, a constructive scheme of a tensometric sensor designed to measure deformation in geosynthetic material under tensile stresses is selected, its calculation is carried out in alphabetic form, internal forces arising from stretching of geotextile are revealed, the formula for the dependence of the relative elongation on the geometric parameters of the sensor is derived. An analysis is made of the influence of geometric characteristics on the immediate dimensions of the structure.
The planning of the experiments to study the thermal properties of seasonal freezing soils in laboratory conditions
K.S. Yadovina, A.V. Mashcenko Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
When studying the thermal regime of soil masses, features and predicting the process of heat exchange in soils, it is necessary to know the thermophysical characteristics of soils. At present time, the study of the thermal properties of soils is carried out with reference to permafrost soils, seasonal freezing soils remain insufficiently studied. The article describes the plan and methodology for conducting a series of experiments to study the thermal properties of clay soils in frozen and thawed states at different values of the flow index: IL=0,4; 0,6 and 0,8. Described in detail the necessary equipment. After realization the laboratory tests, it is planned to perform analytical calculations of thermal properties by different methods of foreign and Russian authors to compare the data obtained. In addition, the article presents conclusions are drawn on the need to continue research into the thermal physics of seasonal freezing soils.
S.L. Belyaev, N.M. Ovchinnikov, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article deals with different ways of the implementation of the remote control system of the main types of construction machines involved in a process of the construction production,including erecting cranes, front-discharging tractor shovels, push-type scrapers and crane-type excavators.An influenceof the remote-control system on the overall automation level of the processes taking place on a construction site andsuch qualitative featuresas safety, productivity and efficiency was determined.The article touches upon the issue of main development trends of the remote-controlled equipment and perspectives of its use in the process of construction and other engineering activities. Immediate objectives facing science, which will serve as the basis for better automation and robotization of the technical means and complexes used by people in the process of creation of building products,were also studied.
G.V. Vakhrusheva, K.A. Kuchukbaeva, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
Ground anchors are one of methods of a protection of ditches. In this article the analysis of different types of ground anchors, their comparison is carried out, information on application of ground anchors is given, their classification is given, and also the boring method of application of anchors and various technologies of its device explicitly is described: with casing pipe, without obsadka, under clay solution. On the basis of these methods the buroinjektsionny way of the device of ground anchors appeared, in article its merits and demerits are described, information on the modern the buroinjektsionnykh anchors is provided, in particular, the foreign technology of the device of ground anchors "Titan" and its single domestic alternative "Atlas" are considered, the common principle of the device of anchors on both technologies is described, and also distinctiveness of each technology is given.
M.A. Glukhikh, S.I. Vakhrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The question of the stability of tower cranes is still relevant because of some recorded cases of turnover on construction sites. The article deals with possible ways to improve the sustainability of tower cranes. Comparative analysis of the calculation of the safety factor by two ways was conducted. Patent search was conducted. Constructive solutions that increase the safety of the works have been found and described.
The development of standard design and standard of organization on the manufacture and installation of gabled hangar from hardware
E.S. Evdokimova Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The question of building of hangar (within the shortest possible time) for warehouse, trade house, productive area is burning question in modern construction. This question is solved by employment of hardware. The development of standard design and standard of organization on the manufacture and installation of gabled hangar from hardware will make it possible to improve constructive decision, manufacturing technology, to regulate of quality inspection, to assign standards on the foundation’s building and erection work.
M.V. Zakharova, A.B. Ponomaryov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article considers and analyzes the experience of the use of modular construction in Russia and abroad, it formulates main values and disadvantages of using this technology. Summarizing the analysis, conclusions and ways of solving and optimizing of the technology of block-modular construction in Russia are determined in terms of normative technical standardization, construction planning, the most rational application. In Russia much attention today is paid to the use of new technologies that would significantly improve the quality of construction, the speed of payback, and thus minimize the timing of work production. Modular construction combines various technologies prefabricated buildings, and in Russia there is sufficient experience and achievements in the development of volume-block construction. Particular attention to this technology is associated with the need to achieve global goals in our country: to solve the problems of providing the population of Russia with affordable and comfortable housing in the framework of state programs; for rapid construction and restoration of housing destroyed in the event of natural disasters, or the creation of fully functioning temporary mobile buildings and structures; for simplification by unification and standardization of installation works during the reconstruction of buildings and structures, in the construction of special-hazardous and industrial facilities; for transfer to factory conditions, excluding the influence of weather conditions, specialized processes for assembling equipment with heat, water, gas servicies, welding and wet processes; and as a result, the simplification of design due to the creation of typical series of objects and the introduction by manufacturers of databases and product catalogs - unified modules (or modular units).
R.I. Zubairov, T.M. Bochkaryova Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
At present, energy saving tasks are the most acute in modern construction. More than 25% of the total heat losses of the building falls on the foundation, this is a significant figure. Also, it should be noted that in the water-saturated clay soils, widespread in the Perm region, arise the forces of frost heaving. It is the reason for the deformation of the foundation. During the foundation works, it is necessary to take qualitative and effective measures to reduce the heat losses, which simultaneously solve the problem of reducing the impact of the heaving. The article presents recommendations for reducing the heat losses through the foundation part of the building, based on the thermal imaging survey. The design solutions for heat insulation of the foundation are considered taking into account the calculation of the thermal fields on the «Elcut» program and the values of the temperature and heat fluxes in the foundation body are revealed. Based on the results of the calculations, there was performed the comparison of the heat insulation options in terms of the energy efficiency and reducing of the frost heaving forces.
Traditional and modern ways to restore the load-bearing capacity of brick walls in the restoration of cultural heritage sites
Y.R. Ismagilova, D.G. Zolotozubov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
In this article, problems of restoring the bearing capacity of brick walls in buildings that are objects of cultural heritage are considered. An analysis was made of various ways to solve these problems. In particular, traditional and modern methods of reinforcing brickwork are considered. The main disadvantages of restoring the bearing capacity of brick walls with traditional methods, such as the device of the cage, the injection of special solutions and partial or complete replacement of the masonry elements, were revealed. The main problems of the above methods are the impossibility of combining the effective reinforcement of the bearing capacity with the preservation of the external appearance of the building and the minimum labor costs. As an alternative, modern ways of reinforcing brickwork were considered: a patented technology for the use of reinforcing bars and techniques for strengthening the horizontal seam.
M.A. Kobylina, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federatio
Currently monolithic economy is becoming increasingly popular. Construction works of reinforced concrete are conducted continuously all year round. Therefore, ensuring design qualities of concrete and reinforced concrete structures in cold period of the year is important problem. The purpose of this article is showing the current level of domestic technology of winter concreting. This article contains an overview of modern methods for the production of concrete work by construction of buildings and facilities in the wintertime. Mention the characteristics of each method and their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we consider the pros and cons of the use of technology as a whole, based on a comparison of energy intensity and labor costs of each method. The technical and economic comparison of types of winter concreting is presented.
A.A. Koryagin, D.N. Sursanov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Russian Federation, Perm
This article represents the process of reinforcing ground. It describes methods of mounting walls of trenches and slopes for improving the properties of ground by reinforcing elements during the construction works. Each method is briefly described the work technique and the mechanisms used.
Modeling of the emergency mode of electrical heating of concrete using heating wire in the software environment ElectronicsWorkbench 5.12
S.A. Koryagin, S.I. Vahrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Monolithic construction is faced with the problems of providing the necessary temperature regime for hardening and recasting of concrete in winter. One of the technologies of winter concreting is electric heating with the use of heating wire. The article considers the technology of concrete heating by electric wire during winter concreting of thin-walled structures, the criteria for choosing equipment and materials for heating are determined. Recommendations are given on the choice of heating elements and connection schemes, based on the requirements for improving the production of work, optimizing and rational use of labor and material resources, reducing the time for additional work. Within the framework of the work, the risks associated with winter concreting technology using heating wire were assessed. In particular, simulation in the ElectronicsWorkbench 5.12 software environment of an emergency of a heating element break in the overlap area.
P.I. Laishcheva, S.I. Vahrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
This article discusses ways to increase productivity scraper units. More detail the economic and mathematical model scraper trains, reflecting the peculiarities of its process cycle and structure formation of its operating costs. One of the ways to improve the technical and economic indicators scraper units is to increase the traction engine efforts. Through the implementation of the maximum traction scrapers work in the train allows you to increase the volume of soil to be recruited into the bucket. The article compares the results of experiments using the scraper trailed scraper trains and at work with a pusher, which showed an increase in train performance by increasing the traction and ground transportation speed. Techno-economic performance of the train can also be increased through the use of towing devices reloaded (TSDU) by increasing traction qualities. This article analyzes studies that indicate that the scraper trains to cope with this problem more efficiently than traditional scraper units that allows to intensify the production of earthworks and to improve technical and economic indicators.
D.A.Luneva, E.O.Kozhevnikova, S.V.Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Modern innovative 3D-technologies are developed and implemented in various spheres of human activity. Recently, much attention is paid to 3D printing technology in construction, which involves creating a physical object with the help of the 3D printer. One of the directions of this technology - the method of layering extrusion is considered in the article, as well as the application and prospects for the development of this method in the construction field. It is given a brief description and principle of operation of two types of 3D-printer, with the help of which this technology is realized. The main types of materials and their combinations used for 3D printing of buildings and structures are considered. The article has descriptions of developments of foreign companies that realize the construction of houses using 3D printing technologies using various materials. The main problems of practical application and implementation, as well as directions of improving this technology, are revealed.
Y.S. Karagulova, E.A. Nikolenko, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
In this article unique properties of the plaster made using industrial hemp are considered, benefits of such plaster are revealed over regular compositions of construction plasters. Also features of plaster with the content of hemp are considered in article, properties and advantages are given its structure. In article scopes of hemp industrial are reflected in a modern construction, examples of use of plaster in the ancient time are given. Comparison of properties, structures, a scope and service life with similar plaster mixes is made. For descriptive reasons comparison is executed in the form of the table. Shortcomings of use of plaster structure with hemp in a daily construction are noted. The conclusion is drawn on efficiency of use of plaster, on the importance of content of hempy fibers as a part of plaster mix.
I. I. Okyntsov, E.N. Sychkina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
Increasing requirements for energy efficiency of buildings make it necessary to develop new or modernize existing enclosing structures. The authors present the prerequisites for the development of energy-efficient construction, briefly review the regulatory framework in the field of energy-efficient construction, and consider the main trends in its development. The classifications of energy efficiency buildings used in Russia and abroad are analyzed, their strengths and weaknesses are revealed. Rational measures are taken to increase the energy efficiency of the building in the climatic conditions of the northern regions. Presented are common designs of the blind section of the outer wall, allowing to provide a high R-vaule. The advantages and disadvantages of these wall structures as applied to the climatic conditions of the Perm Region are analyzed.
E.A. Parshakova, O.V. Shardina, S.V. Kaloshina - Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation.
In today's world there is a number of innovations in the construction of water areas. Undergoes significant changes in bank stabilization technology. This article focuses on traditional and new forms of strengthening the coast in sea areas with a view to selecting the most effective sea coast protection technology. It is a comparison of positive and negative qualities of both technologies. The question of the choice of technology to strengthen the coast, depending on the specific conditions of the construction. It is found that the new design of the steel enclosure shells in some cases allows to achieve better results than conventional sheet piling. Examples of constructed objects construction in the sea area to the need to strengthen the bank. Listed as other methods of strengthening the coast. Affected by factors that may affect the deformation of the coast in marine waters.
E.N. Devyatkova, D.S. Ryzhkov, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The development of underground spaces is one of the most important issues related to the rational management of territories and the possibility of expanding the space in the vertical direction. This article contains The classification of underground structures according to the purpose, the location in the planning structure of the city, the depth of the location, the location relative to existing buildings. In the course of the work, the main advantages and disadvantages of underground construction were considered. Shown the importance of geomechanical works.disclosed the classification of geotechnical monitoring and its sections. Studied The risks (construction, ecological, organizational) that may arise in the course of works.
E.S. Sudnitsyna, Y.S. Izbitskaya, S.V. Kaloshina Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The purpose of writing this article to analyze the method of longitudinal sliding, used in the construction of bridge spans. The object of study in this article longitudinal sliding is of the spans of bridges. The subject of the study will be the method of longitudinal sliding, allowing to construct spans in a modern way. Building of bridges is one of the most difficult and expensive problems to be solved in the process of construction of artificial structures. Recently, due to the density of building in urban areas, as well as a large number of railways, roads and sea transport, the movement of which is not acceptable to interrupt, it is necessary to provide more efficient and convenient methods for the construction of bridges in a short period of time. Research of rational technology of construction of bridge spans using this modern method as a method of longitudinal sliding determines the relevance of this article. In the process of studying the longitudinal sliding superstructures technology such steps as: pre-assembly of superstructures, sliding of superstructures on the bridge piers are covered. Based on the study of the technology, the conclusion about the fit of using this method in urban areas, with large amounts of water space and large spans of the bridge construction, as well as about the prospects of development of the method in Russia and abroad was made.
The review of employment of injectable waterproofing during reconstruction of buildings and structures
M.A. Bezgodov, R.D. Urmancheev PermNational Research PolytechnicUniversity, Perm, Russian Federation;
The article represents a description review of technology of injectable waterproofing during reconstruction of buildings and structures. The purpose of research is analysis technology of foundation repair by using this technology. It is reported that technical publication isn’t valid. In the article patent search is offered for determining the relevance of the research. Much attention is given to development of technology of injectable waterproofing: scientific elaboration and employment of new materials, increasing
K.S. Sheptunova, S.I. Vahrushev Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article describes reason of traumatism at the building site, discusses negative influence of load swing, in construction and hoisting work. Also there are some series of events to prevent the load swing presented. One of those ways in development of modern construction equipment is a device development, that helps increase safety and reliability and improve productivity. In the article there are results of researching the influence of construction shown. The author shows the mechanical damper like light weight added, which decrease period of oscillation flexible pendant to the amount, depends on the place of damper through the length of pendant. In the article the problem of holding comparison between inventions, describing ways, they works, pointing their distinctions and noticing their limitations. Much attention is given to invention, in which the operation principle is the gyroscopic inertia. Also is given a comparison of ways to prevent the load swing on flexible pendant by influence at controls of crane and by using the computer systems, which predict the value of horizontal displacement of joint pendent to the jib in consequence of jib deformations under the influence of the load weight and gives a signals to controls. The main goal of research is analysis and finding the most effective ways to damp load vibrations, the most effective inventions, created to stop the load and also to provide reliability, safety and efficiency construction works at the building site.
Underground space development for the building subject to reconstruction. Analysis of publications and patent research
Y.E. Yazev, O.V. Petreneva Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article sets the task of analysis of technologies for the construction and deepening of subterranean part of buildings subject to reconstruction, and the primary possibility of using the technologies under consideration is determined in the case of the culture center at 14 Okulova St. Perm. It conducted detailed introduction to scientific, technical and patent information on the research topic: it was used scientific and educational materials, articles in periodicals of the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and also dissertations, author’s abstract and materials of webinars; about ten patents of the Russian Federation were selected it the patent searches process. The relevance of the problem is due to lack of development area (which includes open areas for parking) and difficulty of territory development having geological profile. This kind of construction creates additional useful areas under restrained urban conditions, allows to strengthen existing foundations and to transmit loads to more reliable subsoil. The main development of underground space trends for the buildings subject to reconstruction were determined, and also the most perspective directions were estimated on this topic. The article parses terminology of this research topic and presents the classification of the top-down construction method. It considered various methods of constructing an underground space including various modifications top-down and semi-down construction methods. It was identified distinctive features, disadvantages and advantages of some technological and structural concept, and also it conducted technical comparison between then.
M.A. Avdeeva, Ja.S. Luferchik Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
The article describes the technology of the «floating» hatches, which is widely used abroad. In Russia this technology is just beginning to gain popularity, and in a number of cities experimental «floating» hatches are installed. The article presents and describes the design of «floating» hatches, as well as its peculiarities and differences from the design standard flanged hatches. Presents the manner of installing «floating» hatches with a detailed description of the steps scheme. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. A comparative analysis of technology devices with «floating» hatches and flanged housings, as well as their condition in operational period are made, results are summarized and presented in table form. Scoring of the analyzed parameters are developed. Presents the company that manufacture «floating» hatches.
A.M. Veremeev, A.A. Tomilov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Snow is a major weather phenomenon, which has a significant effect on urban infrastructure. It accumulates a lot of pollution, takes a large amount, makes it difficult to transport vehicles, can cause collapse of structures and lead to human injuries. The currently available methods and legal documents on the disposal of snow in the Russian Federation rely mainly on its export and do not solve some of the problems that may arise, which can lead to environmental damage. In this article, the main provisions on the composition of snow, the reagents used, and the regulatory provisions in the winter maintenance of road network facilities in the Russian Federation are reviewed. A comparative analysis of the main methods for cleaning the streets from snow has been carried out for our country.
A.A. Minin Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article is devoted to the problems of ventilation of houses, old buildings. The principles that play a significant role in the work of ventilation are stated. The basic schemes of the device of ventilation channels are given. The basic schemes of air movement in a ventilated room are given. The article is based on the results of the examination of ventilation in the houses located at the address: Perm, Lenina 83. The main sanitary and hygienic conditions of the air are described. The data of expertise of ventilation in the houses located at the address of the city of Perm, Lenin street 83 are analyzed. The variants of the solution of the problem revealed during the examination are found and offered.
A.V. Nechaev, A.V. Grishkova Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article is devoted to the issue of forecasting thermal loads of CHP plants, for choosing the optimal composition of the plant's generating equipment, as well as for forming the most profitable strategy of generating companies in conditions of market pricing for electric energy. The mechanism of pricing "on the day ahead market" is considered. The issue of fuel supply for power plants is touched upon. The basic laws of changing the loads of the heat supply system were obtained in the autumn-winter period. A model is proposed for predicting thermal loads in conditions of an unstable heat transfer regime.
Y.O. Papko Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
Every year, the issue of environmental protection is becoming more urgent. In large-scale production, the harmful substances emitted from the painting chamber cause great harm to atmospheric air and people living in nearby areas. Therefore, according to Article 16 of the Federal Law of 10.01.2002 No. 7 "On Environmental Protection", the installation of purification devices at industrial enterprises is mandatory. The article deals with modern methods of cleaning air removed from the painting chamber, contaminated with solvent vapors and colorful dust. The review of the constructions is made: Pazkat, gas convector Yatagan, air cleaner Aerolife, ABHU and their schemes. The advantages and disadvantages of methods are revealed. As for the consumption of the vapor-gas mixture, which must be cleaned of the hazards, the equipment was selected and a conclusion was made about the choice of the installation in the painting chamber.
A.V. Karakulova1, M.A. Naidanova2, A.O. Alekseev2 1LTD, Analytical center"KD-consulting",Perm, Russian Federation 2Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The task of investment analysis of real estate development projects is being investigated. The accuracy of assessing the economic efficiency of the investment project is significantly affected by the correct choice of the discount rate. As the most preferred method of justifying the discount rate, the method of cumulative construction is chosen. The main components of the cumulative construction model of the discount rate are considered and the methods for their determination are substantiated. A modified method of cumulative construction of the discount rate is proposed. It is distinguished by methods for calculating the timing of exposure in the markets for sale and lease, which are necessary information sources for determining premiums for risks of low liquidity and ineffective management. The task of predicting the timing of property exposition is solved with the help of systemic-cognitive analysis and universal Cognitive analytical system "Eidos".
V. L. Yasnitskiy Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The development of social and economic processes in territorial systems poses the task of improving forecasting methods in conditions of uncertainty. The scenario forecasting model developed on the basis of intellectual analysis of "what if" data shows how changes in managing economic factors of influence affect the market value of residential properties of local markets, which can be used to support the adoption of decisions aimed at the development of real estate markets of territorial Systems in the target direction. This forecasting approach can be used in calculating market development scenarios for directed economic impacts, which expands the scope of existing decision support systems in the tasks of real estate development. Within the framework of the research, the analysis of the influence of the volumes of housing crediting and the volume of commissioning of new residential objects on the market value of real estate in the local markets of Perm and Yekaterinburg is carried out using the developed mathematical model and intellectual analysis of data.
A.A. Ivanchenkov, M.F. Leonovitch
Sandy ground is a loose rock that consists of sandy and dusty particles. These soils are widespread. In Russia, the territory occupied by sandy soils is 1850 km2. The topicality of this topic is that the strength and deformation characteristics of these soils largely depend on moisture, filtration abilities, capillary properties, etc. Therefore, in the case of engineering and geological surveys on the road, in the search for land reclamation, the determination of the depth of the foundations, the design of waterproofing and drainage, the importance of the soil moisture index plays a special role. In this paper, the results of experimental studies of the moisture capacity of fine-grained sandy soil are presented. For testing, the sandy soil was selected in the Upper Kurya area of the city of Perm.
D.R. Zolotarev, I.I. Kapatskaia
Karst is one of the most dangerous natural processes on Earth because it may appear sudden through of the holes and settlements of the earth’s ground, sometimes reaching 50-100 meters and more in diameter and in depth. The article presents the results of testing the methodology of calculation of diameters of the karst holes in the city of Kungur. The article acquaints us with theoretical computation method of V.V. Tolmachev, G.M. Troitskiy, V.P. Khomenko (1986). The object of the research is karst massifs of the city of Kungur. The subject of the research is the regularity of the formation of karst holes in the conditions of karst formation. Exploring has allowed to establish whether the technique gives an excess in the morphometry of the karst holes in compared with the mapped holes.
V.V. Seridin, N.A. Medvedeva, Yu.O. Malgina, T.A. Peshkova Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation
The values of clays suspensions optical density of the Lobanovsky montmorillonite, Alexanderovsky kaolinite, Chelyabinsky and kaolinite in the pH range from 2 to 12. Defined the intervals of clay suspensions greatest aggregate stability in this range (pH 6 to 9). The effect of the clays polydisperse composition on aggregate stability was defined. Plots of optical density (A) from pH was made. The influence of pH on the electrokinetic potential values of montmorillonite and kaolinite clay particles in aqueous suspensions was defined. Established that increasing acidity leads to to neutralize (compensate for) the negative surface charge of clay particles by ions H+, which is realized by reduction of the Zeta-potential in magnitude and as a result in coagulation of clay particles, while by reducing the acidity of the particle surface is charged more negatively.
T.Ju. Parshina, V.V. Seridin Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation
The aim of this work is to study the effect of pressure on change fractional composition of clays. The dependences of changes in the content of fractions <0.1 µm 0,2-0,5 µm 0,5-1 µm, 1-2 µm, 2-5 µm, 5-50 µm for the kaolinite and montmorillonite with increasing pressure. Obtained statistically significant regression model describing the pressure effect on the change fractional the composition of the clays. It is shown that with increasing pressure the contents of fractions of 0.1-5 µm is reduced, and the fraction of 5-50 µm, on the contrary, increases.
Zh. Ju. Ponomareva, D.M. Dimuhametov Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation;
The methodology of experiments was aimed at creating the conditions suffusion of dip formation close to the actual processes developing in the areas of urban water-bearing defects communications. The experiments were carried out in laboratory equipment of the Department of engineering Geology and subsoil protection, Perm state University. The experiments of the physical laboratory modeling of the vertical filtering, a comparative analysis of the process at different capacity of the soil, the dependence between time, amount of removal and the relative deformation of the surface. For the investigated sandy soil, physical properties are determined-granulometric composition, density by the cutting ring method, angle of natural slope in the natural state and under water. Calculated an additional indicator suffusion takeaway – the value of the critical volume of soil that indicates the beginning of a process on the surface. The described sequence of the process of suffusion removal of fixed boundary conditions and symptoms-indicators.
R.D. Khalimanovich, M.F. Leonovitch Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russia
The article is devoted to the study of the moisture capacity of medium-grained sandy soils. Samples of sandy soil in the Upper Kurya area of the city of Perm were taken for research. The sandy soil is mainly represented by medium-, fine- and fine-grained fractions. The subject of the study is a medium-grained sandy soil represented by one fraction. For this fraction, humidity is established along the section and 3 moisture zones are identified: constant humidity, transition zone and maximum humidity. The total moisture capacity (Wt = 22.3%) and incomplete hygroscopic moisture capacity (Wg = 0.3%) was determined. The results on height and speed of capillary uplift are obtained. The maximum height of the capillary rise was 126 mm in 72 hours. The rate of capillary uplift was maximum in the first hours, during the following hours it practically did not change and stopped after 72 hours.
D.A. Kartashova, K.D. Mikhailina - Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Today aerated concrete is a popular building material. Gas-forming agents are used in the process of its production. As there is a large number of gas-forming agents, manufacturers need to choose an additive with the most suitable characteristics. The main quality measure of aerated concrete is porosity, as it determines thermophysical and mechanical properties of concrete. Thus, in the study of original characteristics, much attention is given to gas-forming agents. According to the research, aluminum powder that appears one of the most widely used agents. The article studies gas emission kinetics of aluminum powders by different producers and in different countries. Gas-volumeter can be applied to determine the volume of the released gas. The method is based on changing the hydrogen volume as a result of reaction behavior of aluminum particles with sodium hydroxide. Laboratory environment made it possible to define the following additives: those with the largest and smallest gas emission, the ones with the smoothest kinetics of gas emission and those with higher and lower gas emission intensity at different time.
V.A. Golubev, K.A. Saraykina, A.S. Ketov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
the concrete composite durability, other things being equal, must be assessed based of the chemical-mineralogical hydrated new formations composition characteristics, pore structure and character of the contact zones "matrix - filler", "matrix - reinforcing component." Therefore besides obtaining high physical and mechanical characteristics of the material, it is necessary to take into account the issues of formation and management of optimal composite structure to achieve high durability of the material. The paper considers the influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and high activity of metakaolin on the processes of modified basalt fiber concrete (BFC) structure formation. The introduction of nanostructured additives in the BFC contributes to the protection of basalt fiber from the alkaline corrosion due to compaction of the composite structure and bind of free Ca (OH)2 by metakaolin into insoluble calcium hydroaluminosilicates, and to increase their adhesion to the surface basalt fiber by directional formation morphology growths and composition that leads to a positive effect on the composite durability.
R.V. Radygin, K.S. Koryakova Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
The article is devoted to the research of additives influence on cement setting time at high temperature (500C). It is known that with the use of some additives the characteristics of the material can be changed. In the article, much attention is given to the determination of the normal consistency and presents a detailed analysis of the cement setting time. The paper gives information about each of the additives and their influence on cement characteristics. In addition, it speaks in detail about the testing procedures. The author comes to the conclusion that it is possible to raise the production without changing the time.
Optimization of the lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete modified with carbon nanotubes dispersions to the complex criterion of quality
S.V. Leontev, V.A. Shamanov, A.D. Kurzanov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The results of research aimed at obtaining of the thermal insulation autoclaved aerated concrete with the required level of the structure strength are presented in this article. The studies found that joint introduction in aerated concrete mixture of the specialized blowing agent with monodispersed particles, polycarboxylate and multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersions to obtaining the enhance of strength properties of the thermal insulation autoclaved aerated concrete and slight decrease in its density and thermal conductivity by filling cracks crystalline blocks tumors ordered structure and redistribution of the volume of micropores and capillaries in aerated concrete structure. Optimization of autoclaved aerated concrete composition was performed by complex criterion of its quality by means of «Decon-SM» software product.
A. E. Sobianin, V.A. Shamanov Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article considers the problem of accommodation in the nature of aluminium-containing waste. The practicability and relevance of secondary use of such wastes. Described and analyzed the existing and promising methods of use of such wastes: a comprehensive recycling scheme and the use of building materials. Proven efficiency of the use of aluminium-containing waste in construction materials and listed the specific types of building materials suitable for use in such waste. The characteristics specific vysokouglerodistogo waste and optimal scope of usage of this waste ceramic.
G.V. Sopegin Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Any construction cannot do without the use of heat-insulating materials, the main quality indicators are: thermal conductivity, average density and porosity. To ensure the necessary operational parameters heat-insulating materials must have high porosity, low average density and low values of the thermal conductivity coefficient. An important criterion is also theirs durability and environmental safety. However, few of the currently used heat-insulating materials meet the requirements of safety and durability. The most effective heat-insulating material from the point of view of operational, physical and mechanical properties is foam glass. It is obtained by foaming a glass-forming mass with different types of blowing agents. High porous structure and inorganic composition of foam glass to provide the high thermal properties and resistance to aggressive media. This article presents the comparative characteristic of modern heat-insulating materials. The main disadvantages of heat-insulating materials are revealed. It is shown that foam glass is the most effective heat-insulating material for Russian climatic conditions. Presents the main types and properties of foam glass, the field of its application.
A.M. Cherepanov , V.A. Shamanov - Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
The article presents the analysis of the main trends of production development, implementation of autoclaved gas concrete in the world. The aim of the publication is to identify possible ways of promotion and widespread use of gas by statistical data analysis, familiarization with foreign experience. The article presents the study of the historical development of this construction material from its invention to present day with bringing statistics on its production and use in Russia, the former Soviet Union and Europe. The analysis of stocks of raw materials for the production of autoclaved gas concrete on the example of Perm Region. The main factors hindering the development of the production of silicate on the territory of specific region. The main tasks of solving the problem of availability of quality raw materials on the territory of specific state.
The reasons of peeling of a protective polymeric covering of concrete with the strengthened top layer
V.A. Shamanov - Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
The possible reasons of peeling of a protective polymeric covering of concrete with the strengthened top are described. Presumably, abnormal conditions of curing of concrete and a top-layer, or high content of alkalis on a top ping surface during an initial stage of his curing can be the reasons of peeling of a protective polymeric covering. For establishment of the reasons of peeling of a protective polymeric covering influence of conditions and time of curing of the strengthening concrete layer (top-layer) for tendency to peeling of a protective polymeric covering has been studied. During the experiments it is established that peeling of a protective polymeric covering isn't connected with abnormal conditions of curing: peeling of a protective polymeric covering was observed at the sample with a “green” top-layer hardening later drawings a covering in normal temperature and moist conditions. At the same time, peeling of a protective polymeric covering comes from the strengthened layer (to-layer) in the first 2-3 hours from the moment of a add-water that corresponds to the period of the greatest release of hydroxide of calcium from cement system up to the end of process of loss of mobility of a cement. Recommendations about performance of work about the device of a protective polymeric covering of a top-layer are offered no earlier than in 4 hours from the moment of his topping.