Колонка редактора - Eng
Выпуск №6: По материалам VIII Всероссийской молодежной конференции аспирантов, молодых ученых и студентов «СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ. ТЕОРИЯ И ПРАКТИКА», (Часть I ,июнь, 2016)
Градостроительство. Теория развития города. Теория и история архитектуры, реконструкция и реставрация архитектурного наследия
Влияние теплотехнических характеристик стен на экономию тепловой энергии здания на примере «хрущёвок»
E.Y. Zagainova, I.A. Khalilov, D.G. Zolotozubov
Construction technology in the XX century differs significantly from the modern requirements of state standards. Large-scale construction of “Khrushchev-era” apartments which are still in use was widespread in 50th. The houses of such type have a few drawbacks. For example, uncomfortable planning solution, bad sound proofing, and high heat loss through the building envelope. Warming of walls during the operation of the building is a common method because of two main aspects: the comfort living of occupants and minimization of heating costs. In this article two methods of warming of building envelope are considered, and also the comparative analysis of warmth loss of different enclosure structures is conducted. Based on these calculations the conclusion was drawn about the most cost-effective method of heat insulation of the building envelope.
UDK: 697.1: 692.829
O.S. Karmanova, D.G. Zolotozubov
Currently, the rate of urbanization is continuously gaining momentum. City grows, thickens the existing buildings, and explore new areas for construction of residential complexes. Construction of new homes in an existing neighborhood is perceived as a negative factor, which creates inconvenience for the citizens living in the comfort of nearby homes. Erected buildings violate the penetration of direct sunlight in the living rooms of the existing residential complexes. Insolation most important factor that has a curative effect on the human environment. The calculation of insolation is an integral part of project documentation. Also, every year the natural resources are reduced, and there is a new problem, how to make energy-efficient buildings and facilities. This paper proposes a method to combat heat loss by reducing the window openings. In connection with the change of the window opening, reduced heat loss of the room. This makes it possible to save on heating the apartment and, therefore, save money on this.
N.B. Kurjakova, I.O. Galyautdinov
The article is devoted to the problem of the architectural heritage preservation of the famous Perm architect A.B.Turchevich. It is considered the possibility of the creation of historical and architectural complex "Little Belgium" on the territory of Soda Plant Township in the industrial area of "Soda-Chlorate" Ltd. in Berezniki city by restoration and reconstruction of architectural monuments across the industrial zone and its further integration into the urban environment. As a result of the work the examined object location has been analyzed and its cultural and historical value has been educed. City-planning and investment potential of the complex have been studied, the analysis of photo and cartographic materials have been carried out, domestic and foreign experience of the renovation of existing industrial areas has been considered, functional zoning of examined area has been realized, the concept of the complex has been developed, and also preliminary 3D model has been received. The aims and purposes of further research have been determined.
Nowadays exists an increasing need to replace the floors while the reconstruction of old buildings by the fireproof constructions to enhance the fire resistance of the building. In order to reduce the consumption of materials, labor intensity, and ultimately, the cost of construction products when replacing floors is necessary to choose the right constructive decision. In this article three groups of constructive solutions of concrete floors are considered: prefabricated, precast-monolithic, monolithic. The purpose of the work is to establish the advantages and disadvantages of constructive decisions with floors replacement. All of these floor types were examined on seven indicators: types of floor replacement, mechanization of the installation, used mechanisms, the types of elements, basic materials, the complexity of installation, rational ranges of overlapping spans. Mount technology of floors in residential buildings is presented, as well as the detailed classification of applied constructive decisions.
А.А. Сокил, О.А. Маковецкий
The problem of housing in the Russian Federation today is very serious, despite the pace of construction and new housing. The lack of maneuverable Fund for the resettlement of people from dilapidated housing, the disproportion of growth of new housing and the existing translation in the category of "emergency", as well as the experience of developed countries proves the necessity of extending the service life of the existing housing stock. On the example of Perm, we can note that today the basis of the residential Fund of the city consists of houses built in the 50-70s of the built in "Stalin", "Khrushchev" periods. To date, housing the first mass series is quite popular in the secondary market, has a high dynamics of demand. However obsolescence and physical deterioration progresses from year to year constitutes an increasingly global problem. According to the results of multiple studies, discussions and analysis of profitability of demolitions of industrial housing, it became evident that it is more expedient to reconstruct, to rebuild and strengthen the housing stock of mass housing, thereby to prolong life. To resolve the question of the possibility and efficiency of extending the life of existing urban development done on the systematization and classification of homes of the series "Stalin" and "Khrushchev" time. In the process, there is the collection of design data, characteristics, information on the basis of which will develop the typology of the main defects.
A.V. Spirin, A.S. Grishina
At the present time it is necessary not only to construct new buildings, but also to modernize and reconstruct existing ones. A lot of civil buildings are characterized by high strength and can be exploited, but do not conform to current standards of thermal protection of buildings. The purpose of this article is to provide a rational decision of this problem. The article substantiates the need for additional insulation of external walls in the reconstruction of civil buildings. Modern technologies for their constructive thermal insulation are presented. Their main advantages and disadvantages are examined. Among all technologies of constructive insulation of buildings ventilated facade and wet facade are particularly common. As an example thermotechnical calculation for several variants of additional insulation of the existing school building in Perm is produced.
Строительная механика. Моделирование физических процессов строительства. Строительные конструкции зданий и сооружений
Possibilities of joint laminated wood and carbon fiber reinforced plastics use in an aggressive environment
M.A. Vodiannikov1, G.G. Kashevarova1
The opportunities of carbon fiber reinforced plastics and laminated wood as basic structures are considered. The foreign and Russian experience of use and a great variety of industrial shapes that are made of laminated wood is studied. The ways of production, properties and special features of laminated constructions are shown. The existing problems of development and exploitation are discussed. The present place and a role of carbon fiber reinforced plastics in the foreign and Russian industry, physical properties, special features and production technology are shown. An analysis of existing ways of joint use of carbon and wood is made. Experimental research data of material aging under static loads are described. The conclusions around the possibility of discussed methods extension for improving the reliability and durability are made.
Modeling the stress-strain state of masonry which reinforced by pre-stressed rods because of temperature effects
D.O. Demakov, I.L. Tonkov
Object of research is the brick wall damaged by cracks strengthened by system from previously strained belts. The method of calculation of prestrained belts doesn't consider change of the intense deformed condition of a stone laying owing to temperature influences. Solution of this problem is the idealized model of a fragment of a wall of real object is created. The model consists of two settlement schemes, first of which displays change of the intense deformed condition of a stone laying owing to change of efforts of a tension of belts, the second displays change of efforts of intense belts owing to temperature influences. Change of a tension of cores also affects on results of calculation of a stone laying on collapse. The formula which includes change of efforts of a tension of belts from temperature is as a result received.
Volga State University of Technology, Yoshkar-Ola, Russia; Research of strained condition compo-concrete beam under the reaction of long-time load
D.I. Kalinin, F.A. Sabantsev
The aim of this work is research of strained condition compo-concrete beam – it is the concrete beam reinforced by basalt-plastic rods. Experiment by loading compo-concrete beam was produced In time of researching. Also analytical calculation of beam strains was performed. Analysis and comparison of experimental and analytical results was made. At the end of research, was established that composite reinforcement beam shows creep. Creep was derived in increase of deflection and rise of cracks width. The load corresponding of long-time reinforcement resistance is close to experimental.
П.А. Косых, Г.Г. Кашеварова
The article focuses on the approach of defining plates loaded capability of the complex configuration through profile “ATLANT” web. The main points of creating the design model are described, including the finite element type choice, the determine boundary conditions, defining material characteristics, etc. Special attention is given to buckling modes and the value of initial geometric imperfections. Calculating principles of the full “unreduced” cross sectional area are presented. The comparative analysis with the results of identified stresses which define bearing capability exhausting was done. The series of calculations of various configurations of the web under study are done. The principles of obtained results unification are considered with the aim of approximating curve fitting. Eventually the required relation connecting actual load with maximum stresses is defined. All calculations were done by means of finite-element software ANSYS.
Relevance of explosion protection of industrial buildings, the main reasons for emergence of the situations leading to explosion are noted. Types of the safety designs reducing excessive pressure at explosion are considered. The analysis of the modern easily dumped designs is made.
The research of vertical deformation and load-carrying capacity of foundation reinforced by horizontal elements under cyclic load
The article introduces the research findings of the influence of static and cyclic load exposure on the model of soil reinforced by horizontal elements. On the basis of the data the graphs of settlement on the load and number of cycles are constructed.
V.V. Antipov, V.G. Ofrikhter
Modern nondestructive methods of investigation of the low-velocity zone are actively advanced today. In the absence of necessity to perform borings labor expenditures and cost of the operations are reduced significantly. Accuracy and correctness of the final results which are obtained by non-destructive methods is almost the same as when using destructive methods. The purpose of this article is to review multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and additional tool called Back-Scattering Analysis (BSA) for detecting anomalies in low-velocity zone. The procedure of MASW method is considered in detail at every stage of the work. The passive types of MASW are considered in details: common passive, passive roadside. Examples of the resulting images are also presented in this article. The principles of Back-Scattering Analysis are described in details.
А.S. Asanova, D.G. Zolotozubov
Issues related to strengthening and reconstruction of footing of buildings and structures that are relevant, as in the construction practice, such situations are common. Due to the complexity and diversity of processes of soil bases and footing in the process of operation, a significant impact on the choice of methods to address the adverse situations. This article details the reasons for the disruption of the footing structure. The classification of major disturbance in which there is a division into two types. To identify the factors that influence their occurrence. Describes the characteristic features for each item.
A.V. Buravskaya, O.A.Makovetsky
The problems of the weak soil base densification are acute both in the Perm Territory and in the Russian Federation. One of the most effective methods of soil densification is the so-called method of injecting, or jet grouting. Cement grout jetting enables to create a geotechnical barrier and reduce soil subsidence. The technology is widely spread in Russia, as well as in foreign countries due to its economic and technical efficiency. In this article we go through the way the geotechnical barrier is structured. Moreover, it shows possible solutions used for soil densification by means of jet grouting. The article shows the perspective of using the technology that is on par with jet grouting for making geotechnical barriers. The technology suggested by the authors is connected with the pilot drilling and using bentonite clay, which is impacted by means of high pressure. Such a high pressure jet of waterbentonite makes the soil mix with the solution. It helps to get a more solid material.
E.A. Gaikov, A.O. Zubov
In this issue the results of laboratory investigation of soil compression phases with consideration of various granulometric composition are presented. Considering grain-size distribution allows to refine technological requirements for artificial soil structures, backfills, sand beds. Further studies could be used for developing standard documents, SP45.13330.2012 in particular. It is shown, that soil density is correlating with deformability parameters only for the same grain-size distribution. Basing on the test results it is shown, that compaction ratio is not sufficient for deformability estimating without grain-size distribution taken into account. Experimental soil box with microscale video recording for compression phases studies is described. Photo and video materials showing the differences of microscale particle movements were obtained for non-cohesive soils with different grain-size distribution. Analysis of the compression tests results and elastic and plastic deformations separation allows to identify each compression phase.
R.R. Galiullin1, I.Т. Mirsayapov1
Abstract: The results of the impact studies of the effect of regime of cyclic and static loads on the model plate-pile foundation. Determined rainfall, voltage and ground forces in piles. The analysis of a graph which shows that stress in the ground and the efforts to change the piles.
N.Z. Gotman, M.N. Safiullin
The article is devoted to the design methods for strenthened foundation based on the actual stress-strain state of bases and foundations. Numerical study of the interaction of raft foundation with grouting strengthening piles. There are some regularities recommended for strenthened foundation design.
A.V. Derevyannykh, I.T. Mirsayapov
This article presents the results of experimental studies of the strength and deformability of clay soils under triaxial under cyclic loads, conducted in the laboratory of the department of bases, foundations, structural dynamics and engineering geology KSUABC. New data on the development of linear and volumetric strain corresponding modules clay soils strain with increasing stress and time of action static loading. Revealed the nature and mechanism of destruction of samples of soil, patterns of change in density of the soil in the typical areas of samples.
Influence of module deformation of foundation on the bearing capacity of single CFA conical and cylindrical piles in clay soils.
N.G. Kazhentsev, D.A. Chernyavskiy, O.Y. Eschenko
The article discusses the analysis of the impact deformation module studies on clay soils bearing capacity buroinektsionnyh conical and cylindrical piles under static loads. The object of research is the bearing capacity of conical and cylindrical piles. The aim of the research is determination of deformation modulus influences on the bearing capacity of a single buroinektsionnoy bevel helical piles of the same material consumption. A comparative evaluation of the bearing capacity of single buroinektsionnyh conical and cylindrical piles of different lengths when changing module clay soil deformation. The study used numerical methods. Models of tasks created in the program complex Midas GTX.
On the question of eliminating non-normative bank building with adjustable bases in geological conditions Perm
A.D. Kazakov, E.N. Sychkina
The article is dedicated to the issue of elimination of regulatory differential settlement of building by means of adjustable foundation. The article represents a review of the problem of alignment of buildings, methods and ways of eliminating differential settlement of building in the geological conditions of the Perm city. The authors mention on following problems: 1) definition of a sequence of works; 2) selection of the most optimal design of the adjustable foundation; 3) make recommendations eliminate differential settlement on the object. Much attention is given to the method of aligning the building and the search for the most suitable model and method for the adjustable foundation dislocation. The article reports the sequence of removal events for a non-normative settlement: 1) the determination of the parameters adjustable foundation; 2) the need to strengthen of base; 3) depth of strengthen base; 4) technological aperture dislocation and the necessary equipment.
Retaining structures are the most common structures to protect the soil from collapsing. The article presents the results of the series of model experiments to determine horizontal displacements of the retaining wall. The object of study was thin-walled retaining wall. As the backfill was fine-grained sand, dried to air-dry state. Horizontal displacements were measured from the constant load, expressed of its own weight of soil, and a temporary load on the prism of collapse. Backfilling was performed by the method of layer-by-layer compaction, temporary load was applied incrementally, until the stabilization of the soil. Horizontal displacements were measured in five different points of the retaining wall with the same step of height. The results of the model experiments are presented in tables according to displacement of the height of the backfill soil and applied temporary loads.
V.I. Kleveko, D.A. Komarov
Most of the city of Perm has a complex geological condition and is composed of soft soils, which do not allow construction without the use of special measures. One way to improve the properties of soil is different soil reinforcement geosynthetics. The development of technology in the chemical industry in recent years, the market appears a large number of new geosynthetics. This requires research aimed at understanding the work of the new geosynthetic materials in the construction of embankments and their interaction with the ground. The purpose of the test is to study the possibility of using the device "Measuring the dynamic elastic modulus of soil DPG-1.2" to determine static modulus Est and dynamic elasticity modulus Ed, as well as determining the impact of soil reinforcement geosynthetics to change the static modulus of elasticity Est and dynamic elasticity modulus Ed. The reinforcement geosynthetic material has been used wireframe mesh KC-16 production of JSC «Krasnokamsk Metal Mesh Works».
А.Ю. Колечкина, А.В. Захаров
Currently, there is a tendency to improve energy efficiency of buildings. The greatest preference is given to the use of alternative sources: wind, water, sun and soil. This article discusses the increase in energy efficiency of buildings through the use of ground power, low-grade geothermal energy. This energy can not be used directly, so for heating buildings should use a heat pump system. This system consists of a primary circuit (ground collector) of the heat pump (TN) and the secondary circuit (system of heat consumption). The aim of this work is the study of heat pump (the history of, the design features, the operating principle, species) and various systems of heat consumption. Produced review of Russian companies Commodity producers. As heat consumption systems considered floor, wall and ceiling systems.
P.A. Lyashenko, P.E. Babkin
The article provides the description of the method of data analysis soil tests vertical static load on the injection bored piles. The settlement of piles has been obtained after the application of the steps of the impressed vertical force, which had been assigned equal to 1/10 of the calculated expected resistance. Each subsequent step of the pressed force was applied after stabilization of the settlement from the previous stage, i. e. when the value of displacement not exceeding 0.1 mm for the last 30 min of observations. Analysis of the relative displacement increment (the rate) showed that it changes unevenly. In was found that variation of the settlement rate occurs naturally i.e. its growth decreases when the characteristic value of the impressed forces, constituting a certain part of the calculated resistance. In the clay soils characteristic of this impressed force corresponds to the settlement, equal to about 3 mm. Suggested that this characteristic impressed force is the stabilization point of the resistance of piles on the lateral surface. It stops growing, and further growth of resistance of the pile due to the increase in the resistance of the soil to the lower end of the pile. This analysis of the field tests helps to clarify the value of the resistance of the soil on the lateral surface of the pile.
P.A. Lyashenko, I.O. Eshchenko, P.E. Babkin, Y.S. Safronov
This article provides an experience indentation in the clay soil pile foundation model. The experiment was conducted in the framework of the scientific-pedagogical practice at Masters of Civil Engineering Faculties of theta Kuban State Agrarian University in the Department of bases and foundations. The following tasks were set before the Masters: 1. To study the forms of soil destruction indentation in his models of pile foundations. 2. Compare the visible destruction with record rainfall patterns. 3. Formulate a working hypothesis about the causes and mechanism of the destruction of the soil at the going-Lebanon in his model. All objectives were met. Description of the experience and the findings are presented below.
FEATURES OF THE EXAMINATION AND REPAIR OF UNDERGROUND CAPACITIVE STRUCTURES IN THE CONDITIONS OF OPERATING ENTERPRISES
D. Serebrennikova, E. Bogdanova, E. Luzgina
In the design of underground reinforced concrete tanks requires attention to a comprehensive assessment of the factors affecting the stability of the system and calculate the projected building as an interrelated system "soil – reservoir - surrounding development" and not a single contact problem. The need for an integrated analysis of underground structures, and consideration given to changes in physico-mechanical properties of soils in the process of construction and operation is emphasized by the fact that increasingly there are situations damaging the structures, which lead to the reduction of operational qualities of buildings or emergency situations.
O.Makovetskiy, D. Serebrennikova, E. Bogdanova, E. Luzgina
The article provides an example of the use of jet grouting for soil stabilization of nonuniform sediment high-rise buildings based on folded weak soils. The evaluation of engineering-geological conditions of the construction site and the necessity to use artificially enhanced base "structural geomassiv". Describes the principles of modeling, design and implementation on a construction site hard gruntovedenie elements. Analysis of the results of geodetic monitoring of sediment showed the validity of the proposed design solutions.
A.V. Bezmaternykh1, N.S. Mizev2, S.V.Kaloshina1
Abstract: It shows the relevance of the construction of fixed offshore platforms, through which hydrocarbons are extracted. Given the concept and the description of the Arctic continental shelf of the Russian Federation. Displaying the percentage of hydrocarbons on the shelf. Indicated that the search operations conducted in the same manner as on the continent. Shown geophysical methods of search and exploration of deposits. A comparison of drilling on land and sea. Results dignity offshore stationary platform gravity. We describe the structure and technology of erection of the installation. Presents the installation sequence for the deposit platform and various design stage. Given explanations to the cycles of the simplified schedule of works. Results provisions on quality control and compliance with the established requirements in the construction in the Arctic. It shows the unique oil and gas platforms.
O.V. Goncharova, S.I. Vahrushev
The article touches upon the issue of analyzing the innovations in the design of bulldozer work equipment, as well as research of impact of using the certain structural elements on bulldozer productivity. The article presents the classification of bulldozer work equipment by different criteria. There is pointed a number of bulldozer machine development directions. The main structural elements able to improve machine productivity and expand its scope are defined. There is grounded the consistency of hydraulic cylinders using in bladepositioncontrol. Design features of blade necessary to work in specific soil conditions are pointed. It was found that such work requires special attachment mounted directly on the bulldozer blade. There is estimated the effect of the attachment on the machine productivity while working on its unusual soils. Considered inventions are evaluated in terms of environmental safety and protection.
The object of the research is porous ceramic blocks relatively new building material, which appeared in the 80s of the last century. The article examines the characteristics of this material. Highlighted its advantages and disadvantages. Also it found that from porous ceramics as the material of the carrier is allowed to cock the building height of floors 9, inclusive, and if it is used as a self-supporting material or non-structural, that its application is almost unlimited. Technology of using this material is significantly different from the usual brick, since the solution is placed on horizontal joints only, and the vertical seams do not need it due to the fact that the end faces of blocks connected in tongue and groove. The solution is used "warm", since joints are cold bridges and through them to originate the biggest heat loss. Transportation porous blocks is carried on pallets to wrap the package in the film. Keep material as possible in the transport position and in the stack. The study concluded that that "warm" ceramic is a promising replacement for the traditional bricks, as almost all the characteristics except the fragility and frost, it is ahead of him. Also one of the major advantages is the thermal conductivity of the material is several times lower than that of a brick, in accordance with the permitted walling of "warm" without ceramic heater that increases the life of the building and reduce construction costs.
The article touches upon the issue of the building structures defects. The classification of defects has been introduced. It is reported about common defects in the monolithic housing construction and their causes. The author draws reader's attention to results of state checks at construction sites. In conclusion the author notes weaknesses in the organization of monolithic construction technology in Russia. The article gives a practical recommendations for the improvement of their quality
UDK: 692.48; 693.29
T.V. Zagitdinova, S.V. Kaloshina
The article discusses the concept of automation, what it is, its advantages and direction of technological processes in the construction industry: in construction of buildings and structures, finishing, repair, diagnostics and rehabilitation. Describes how you can achieve better productivity, speed of construction, reducing time spent on manual operations, elimination of errors related to insufficient qualification of workers. In the sphere of construction of buildings represented robotic system to perform brickwork, a device for the construction of the walls of the modules, the method of construction of a building frame, device for mounting of roof structures, describes the principle of operation of an industrial robot for the construction of buildings. In the sphere of finishing works have been devoted to robot plasterer that can ease the work and reduce the time to complete the plastering. In the sphere of inspection and diagnostics of buildings and constructions presents a method which allows to eliminate the mistakes caused by insufficient qualification of experts, and conduct various calculations.
A.A. Zaitsev, A.V. Maksimovskikh, S.V. Kaloshina
The article studied the problem of corrosion of concrete and methods of corrosion protection of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and their separate elements. Shows the classification of concrete corrosion in gaseous, solid and liquid media. The above types of corrosion damage the concrete, resulting in a decrease in strength and, as a consequence, the durability of buildings and structures. Considered a list of concrete to protect the design of input data from destruction by the unfavorable external factors. A more detailed study of the problem of secondary protection of concrete and reinforced concrete from corrosion damage. The comparative characteristic of secondary protection options. The advantages and disadvantages of certain types of coatings, improving the properties and durability of concrete structures. Presents promising directions of development of corrosion protection of concrete and concrete products from destruction.
N.A. Zykina, A.A. Ivanko, S.V. Kaloshina
Nowadays, 3D flooring is an innovative installation technology of self-leveling floor. The floor with the volume effect helps to solve design problems. The article contains short recommendations on how to choose a covering image, depending on intention of premises. Also there are several types of images and the self-leveling floor field of application. The application of all polymer coating layers is considered in stages. Besides, it is spoken about a polymeric floor’s distinctive features: mechanical and chemical stability, aesthetic appeal, environmental friendly and easy way of cleaning. Furthermore, there is comparison between 3D cover with alternative types of self-leveling floor (epoxy and polyurethane). The comparison is made in the form of a table. The conclusions are about the advantages and disadvantages of the 3D floor in different intention of premises.
V.S. Ivashkin, S.I. Vahrushev
Consider the scope of the pneumatic tire. Presents special requirements for pneumatic tires for construction machines. A patent search is conducted on the different test stands for pneumatic tire. Two groups of test benches are considered: the stands allowing to measure the concrete parameters and stands intended for increase in accuracy, or for bigger automation of measurement of parameters of a pneumatic tire. Advantages, disadvantages and distinctive features of test benches are presented. Considered the notion of norm ply-rating, the schedule of dependence of carrying capacity on ply-rating of pneumatic tire of enhanceable passableness is constructed. The method of modeling of loading capacity of the pneumotire based on cutting off of contact of the tire from a cover is presented. Concepts of carrying power of a wheel, vertical force of the bearing framework of the autotire, a spot of contact of a pneumowheel are considered. The task of general durability of shell of tire is solved by the method of sections. The most dangerous sections of a pneumocover are considered. The concept of normal pressure is considered owing to what it is established that discrepancy of internal pressure of the autotire to norm results in uneven wear of the tire and according to deterioration in operational properties. The effort in threads of a cord and explosive pressure is calculated. Dependence of loading capacity on air pressure in the autotire is considered. The relation of normal pressure to potentially maximum pressure in the autotire is calculated. The question of a possibility of increase in loading capacity due to achievement of big pressure in the autotire is raised.
V.S. Ivashkin, A.V. Semenov, S.V. Kaloshina
Considered a new type of a roofing covering and design features. Reasons of "heat island effect" in the cities are presented and ways of their decision are considered. The assessment of this covering on such coeffi-cients as is given: solar reflectance, thermal emittance, solar absorptance, thermal resistance. It is shown that use of cool roofs allows to increase roof service life, to save money on the electric power, and also to reduce "effect of the thermal island". The analysis of reflecting ability of the traditional roof and roof covered with special re-flecting structure is carried out. Given alternative options cool roof: green and solar roof. The advantages and disadvantages of cool roofs for individual buildings and for the city as a whole are considered.
I.A. Isupov, T.M. Bochkareva
New technologies are even more often used and entered in the modern construction, one of such technologies is expansion of wells under stuffed piles. Piles in unroll wells can be used as the foundation for a new device structures, and to restore the reliability of emergency facilities, as well as the reconstruction of buildings, increasing the bearing capacity of the foundation operated. The relevance of this article due to the need to generalize the knowledge and experience gained by drifting wells and reflect the main aspects of this technique: the advantages, disadvantages, construction technology. The article describes the circuit piles, rolled wells and layout of piles in the ground array. The advantages and disadvantages of the technology are listed. The device of screw and drum roller of a soil are described. Basic cars and installations for expansion of wells are given.
I.A. Isupov, T.M. Bochkareva
The technology of a wall in a soil is considered in this article. The way "wall in a soil" - one of the most frequent and widely applicable ways of underground construction. Relevance of technology is caused by annually growing demand for construction of the buried underground constructions. The classification of walls is given in a soil: to destination, to materials, on a configuration in the article. Described process sequence to create a wall in the ground. Advantages and shortcomings of a method are listed. Various cars and mechanisms for the wall device in a soil are considered. Construction methods depending on ground conditions are described. Describes two methods erecting walls in the ground: dry method and wet method using a slurry. The standard set is given and questions of quality control of construction are considered.
Investigation of wear resistance of the working body of the building and road machines in various operating conditions
Y.D. Kazakova, S.I. Vahrushev
This article shows the phenomenon of wear resistance of the working equipment including teeth dozer blade, knives and shovels and etc, the negative influent of corrosion and wear and tear on the construction process. Wear and tear, where material loss as a result of exposure to particulate matter, aggressive environment, is one of the major challenges of reducing the life of the working bodyworking body which is operated under severe conditions. Therefore, of great interest comprises developing new steel materials and technical solutions, resulting in increased wear resistance. Presented steel`s patents most suitable for using in cold weather, in an abrasive environment or high shock loading conditions. Furthermore, it shows especially these compositions(alloys) and their main applications. The development of new steel materials and specifications, resulting in higher wear resistance. Significantly increases the life of the working body of the building and road cars developed technology with hardening restoring worn parts. As a universal method described carbovibrodugovoy method technology, and review the process of improving (restoring) the worn surface in this way. The relevance of this article is supported raising taxes on the import of new jobs for the construction and road machines. Due to the high degree of wear of the working performance of the machine body is reduced, thereby increasing the performance time and economic costs. Working with poor working body can disrupt the process and the safety of the work. All of these factors hinder the achievement of the main goal of building and road cars - increased efficiency and productivity on the construction site.
Y.D. Kazakova, M.E. Polovnikov, S.V. Koloshina
This article focuses on the facades of buildings on the device using the stained glass. The classification of types of stained facades, which reveals several structural systems is fundamentally different from each other. Also touched upon the use of advanced materials in the production of stained-glass systems. We consider the scope of the decorative translucent walling. This article discusses the benefits of stained glass over other types of systems, facades, are the different types of stained glass insulation systems, as well as discussed issues of energy conservation. The article describes how the standard glazing technology with the help of struts, crossbars and clamping frames, as well as more modern technologies such as the spider, structural and semi-structural system.
Y.S. Karagulova, E.A. Nikolenko, S.V. Kaloshina
In this article unique huge construction cars, such as the Bagger 288 excavator, the mobile Grove 6350 elevator, the bulldozer Komatsu D575A3 are considered. Advantages of these cars over the usual construction equipment used on earthwork are revealed. Features of operation of giant cars are considered, and also their technical characteristics are given. In article scopes and features of work of equipment in different construction conditions are described. Comparison of productivity, loading capacity and volume of a dump of huge cars with similar technical parameters of cars of the standard sizes is made. For descriptive reasons comparison is executed in the form of schedules. Shortcomings of use of giant cars of daily construction are noted. The conclusion is drawn on overall performance of giant cars, on their importance at works on big construction objects.
This article describes the different ways of warming of walls, ceilings and roofs. Choosing the right method of warming should not depend only on the price of insulation, because each heater will not be practical and work effectively. As a result, the wrong choice of insulation may cause cold bridges and moisture in some areas of the building. The shown are the main advantages of each method of warming. The comparison of insulation on the physical and mechanical properties. The classification of insulation in place and how to use them. Modern methods of warming a sputtering method, using a "wet" or "warm" plaster. It identified the most economical way of insulat-ing walls. Presented insulation technology of the device depending on the way their devices. Separately considered ways attic insulation, floor and basement floors.
Determination of dependence of efficiency of blow of a diesel hammer on depth of immersion of a pile in a clay soil of various fluidity are chosen
V.A. Kashevarova, S.I. Vahrushev
Because of the dense population of megalopolises the main share of construction is the share of construction of multystoried buildings at which the pile base acts as the load-bearing frame perceiving loading from the building and transferring her to the basis. Therefore the knowledge of a production cycle of immersion of a pile and nature of change of parameters of equipment for pile works that will allow to increase an efficiency of installation of the bases is very important. For this purpose in article dependence of efficiency of blow of a hammer on depth of immersion of a driven pile in a clay soil is studied.As the equipment for pile works the rod and tubular diesel hammers immersing a pile in a clay soil of various fluidity are chosen ( , , ), Schedules of change of the settlement resistance of a soil under the lower end of a pile and settlement resistance of the i-th layer of soil on the side of the base of the pile are calculated and represented. Besides, the bearing ability of a pile is determined by a soil. Distinctions between rod and tubular diesel hammers, namely, different values of efficiency of diesel hammers are designated. Considering these distinctions, calculation of change of efficiency of blow of a hammer for three indicators of fluidity of a clay soil is made. The revealed dependences allowed to draw conclusions on nature of change of settlement resistance of a soil, efficiency of blow of diesel hammers. Probe has dot character and can be used for deeper studying of change of efficiency of blow of pile hammers.
A.P. Kishmiryan, R.M. Shamsiev, S.V. Kaloshina
The article shows the cost-effectiveness of the use of chemical additives in the production of various construction materials. It describes the scope, purpose and main features of chemical additives for concrete. Forecast of production of concrete and reinforced concrete in Russia. The classification of chemical additives, depending on their destination. The question of their impact on the concrete characteristics such as strength, flexibility, connectivity, density, while curing, frost, etc. We analyzed in detail two plasticizer: complex additive Russian production PKF-70 and foreign special plasticizer for concrete TENCEM 2. describe their properties, application, dosage rate and the conditions under which achieved the greatest efficiency of their use. Based on research compiled a comparative table of the properties of the above-mentioned plasticizers.
This article proposes improving the infrastructure of the city of Perm, as well as attracting investment through the development of underground space: creation of underground car parks, parking lots, and the main subway. The history of the question of the design, and later creating the Perm underground. The information on the preliminary location of subway lines, the length, the same said about the reasons for the construction and companies, who designed the Permian underground. We present the cost of designing the metro is not simple considering the geological conditions. Consider new engineering invention leading companies for the development of the soil, as well as their improvement, thanks to which it is possible to reduce the cost and speed. A comparison Tunnel mahanizirovanny complex with active prigruza such as hydraulic and soil prigruza. It describes the advantages and disadvantages of each method for different construction conditions.
The аnalysis of the calculation of internal sewerage systems on Construction Norms and Regulations 2.04.01-85 and Set of Rules 30.13330.2012
M.A. Avdeeva, Ja.S. Luferchik, L.V. Bartova
The comparative analysis of algorithms of calculation of the maximum expenses of sewage for two normative documents, Construction Norms and Regulations 2.04.01-85 and the Set of Rules 30.13330.2012 "Internal water supply and sewerage of buildings" is carried out. The algorithm of calculation of the maximum expenses for the Set of Rules 30.13330.2012 is offered. Calculations of the maximum second expenses of sewage for sites of the internal sewerage networks on Construction Norms and Regulations and the Set of Rules for two objects are executed: recreation facility and multisection house. The comparative analysis of results of calculations is carried out. The sizes of the maximum second expenses on network sites received on the Set of Rules 30.13330.2012 there are less expenses received by calculation on Construction Norms and Regulations 2.04.01-85 by 1,7 – 2,6 times. Necessary design data of work of the sewerage system for the expenses received by two ways of calculation remain identical: diameter of a network – 150 mm, a bias – from 0,008 to 0,01. Keywords: internal systems, sewerage, rate of sewage disposal, rated flow, ratios of irregularity.
K.Iu Akhmetova, N.V. Men′shikova, L.V. Siriachenko
The article presents an analysis of the use of thermonuclear devices in the world, presents the advantages and disadvantages of this technology, describes the causes that prevent the technology is widely spread. The article discussed in detail the principle of the thermonuclear power plant, inside which there is a nuclear fusion reaction, explained the basic processes occurring in the reactor. We consider economic and environmental aspects associated with the creation of a station and use the technology. Fusion fuel is one of the future energy source with great potential. Such fuel economically, safely and is environmentally friendly. With proper design and use of advanced materials it is possible to create power with the cheapest compared to other currently existing generation and clean energy technologies.
This article discusses the prospects for the use of facilities using renewable finite resource - wind energy. It presents the advantages and disadvantages of this technology, as well as its relevance to different areas of Russia. For example, the use of wind energy plant for heating residential houses in rural areas without electrification in the Primorsky Territory is considered the economic and technical component of the matter: the main challenges faced wishing to use this technology people, the size of the capital cost of the system unit. During calculations derived economic indicators, including the costs of the heating system and the payback period of the wind power plant. The conclusion about the prospects of this technology in areas outside of the Primorsky Territory on the example of the Perm region.
A.M.Veremeev, A.A. Tomilov, O.I. Ruchkinova
Auto transport has one of the strongest influence on the environment. One of the main problems arising from the operation of vehicles, is the discharge of heavily polluted surface waste water from roads in the surrounding area and the nearby water bodies. Among the main causes of the environmental problems can be identified normative literature irrelevance and lack of control over the observance of the recommendations. This article studied the results of studies of Russian and foreign specialists in the composition of waste water from the roads, the basic methods of treatment prior to discharge. Also presented formulated in the course of research possible solutions.
E.P. Vihareva, T.N. Beloglazova
There are high demands of reliable operation for the gas supply system in the house. The article deals with three types of inner tubes for gas pipelines, steel, copper and metal-polymer. Pipes from different materials have different characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. The using of pipes for the installation of domestic gas pipeline should meet the requirements of safe operation. The study evaluated the work associated with the installation of pipes of different materials. There was regarded an example of the using of copper pipes for gas supply in-house in the Perm region. There was also analyzed the possibility of using copper pipes for outer gas pipelines. The using of in-house pipeline of copper pipes reduces installation time and provides high-quality gas supply system.
А.В. Гришкова, А.С. Сальникова, К.Е. Канаева
Due to the need to find new technical solutions for the use of renewable energy sources has been analyzed existing information to create settings to use solar energy efficiently. The article transfer method discussed in detail sunlight into chemical energy by using the smallest puroidoza Chlorella algae, which allow to carry out this method of energy conversion. The information about the kinds of biological data, the topic covered in detail reproduction of chlorella, an event by re-dividing the first chromatophores and then the entire contents of each cell into several equal parts. The question of the use of biological concentrators to generate biofuels from carbon dioxide, as well as the ways of its further use. The conclusion of the applicability of this technology in Russia.
M.A. Zakhvatova, A.V. Grishkova
In connection with the release of the Federal Law of 27 July 2010 "About Heat Supply" №190-FL of the Russian Federation, which governs "from 1 January 2022 the use of the open central heating systems (hot water) for the needs of hot water supply, carried out by the selection of the coolant to the needs of hot water, are not allowed ", the object of the study are two types of heating systems - open and closed. The aim of the article is to conduct a summary analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems, based on the previously written articles and reviews, and to draw a conclusion about the advisability of transfer of open system to a closed circuit. The study will be offered the option of further exploitation of an open system that solves the main problem of this scheme to date.
E.A. Kondratiuk, A.I. Burkov
This article provides basic information about the use of air conditioners during the transitional temperature period. More work is considered conditioners split systems, describes the possibility of this system during the winter season at subzero temperatures, are the key potential negative consequences for the equipment. The article compares the cooling systems of data types from different manufacturers of equipment. Set out the advantages and disadvantages of the use of "winter kit", is considered part of the standard installation and components described technology based on the use of the condensation heat to maintain optimum ambient air temperature in the immediate vicinity of the outdoor unit. An example of a conditioning system in real conditions: cooling of the system considered. The conclusions about the prospects for the use of this system in the Perm region.
The article deals with three sewage treatment way for reception of potable water: with the help of membrane technology, waste recovery system Janicki Omni Processor and microbial fuel cell. Application experience of membranes in concrete inhabited locality and also appraise efficacy them work is put case is adduced. Working principle of recently designed system of utilization by company Janicki Bioenergy is describe, possibility and basic characteristics this device are elucidated. Microbial fuel cell are developing purification technology that can be used both for waste water processing in potable and for power production. Basic tendencies its future improving are shown. The comparative analysis this methods is made, identified the advantages and disadvantages any one of them.
This paper analyzes the methods of wastewater treatment, coming from dairy plants. Presented indicators of specific polluting components that affect the choice of treatment method.After analyzing the various methods of wastewater treatment from dairy plants, concluded that the appropriateness of each.For wastewater of the dairy industry is characterized by high concentrations of BOD, COD, suspended solids and fats. To choose the optimal technology of wastewater treatment scheme, which provides the quality of treated water is below regulatory requirements. The adopted technological purification scheme is based on two main methods of treatment: physical and chemical methods, flotation reagent and method of biological treatment. As a post-treatment, two-stage sorption filters taken with the load of crushed klinoptilalit and quartz sand.As used decontamination installation ultraviolet irradiation wastewater. Keywords: wastewater, dairy plants, pollution, concentration, wastewater treatment, methods of wastewater treatment, biological treatment, organic dirt, grease,BOD, COD, flotation.
The objects of the research are topping floors. The purpose of the research is the determination reasons of the decrease of strength topping layer and elimination these reasons. The analytical method in the research is used. The analysis of the requirements and parameters of quality imposed on topping floors is made. The reasons for decrease of strength toppings layer are identified.
Karmanova A.S., Cherepanov A.M.
The article presents the results of studies of various methods for assessing the activity of the cement binders. The samples were tested according to the methods specified in the standards for the product. Samples tested at different ages and with different grain composition.
Influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the structure and properties of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete
S.V. Leontev, V.A. Golubev, V.A. Shamanov, A.D. Kurzanov
The results of analysis composition and structure of the modified thermal insulation AAC demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes serve as centers of crystallization of calcium hydrosilicates in hardening lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete and stimulate the structure forming of hardening lime-silicate binder with high crystallinity in comparison with the plain check sample. Calcium hydrosilicates of the increased density form a space frame that provides thermal insulation autoclaved aerated concrete with the enhanced physical and technical properties.