Колонка редактора - Eng
Выпуск №7: По материалам VIII Всероссийской молодежной конференции аспирантов, молодых ученых и студентов «СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ. ТЕОРИЯ И ПРАКТИКА», (Часть II ,сентябрь, 2016)
Градостроительство. Теория развития города. Теория и история архитектуры, реконструкция и реставрация архитектурного наследия
D.A. Davydovа, E.P. Kuznetsova
The problem of security and strengthening of growing generation is foreground direction of government’s policy in social sphere. In this article there are irrefutable evidences of our country’s children health worsening during last 10-15 years. Objective and subjective reasons of such a negative phenomena are analyzing here. They are tense rhythm of modern life, genetic factors, ecology, ineffective activity of health saving system. It is noticed, that 50% of a person’s health depends on a person himself/herself and on his/her way of life.Estimated by specialists, risk factor for pupils’ health, except socio-economic difficulties, are reducing of physical activity. Lack of exercise is noticed before school and continued at primary school. It is necessary to have drastic measures to divert children from computers and TV-sets and attract to physical education and sport. But for educational and propagandistic measures, we need to create a netof effectively functioning modern children sports playgrounds and complexes. In this article a general level and quality of children sports playgrounds in our country are analyzing, the output of non-compliance and the backlog from European and world level is making. Based on information about foreign analogies, principles of creating children sports playgrounds and parks, which are fitting to psychophysicalspecialties of children are formulating.
The technology of monolithic construction of multi-storey buildings in the tunnel formworkAnalysis of assumptions and choice of European level etnokomplex location «Ёma-Ёmushka» in the Perm region
N.B Kuryakova , K.S Koryakova
Abstract. The article gives a detailed analysis of the prerequisites for the construction of all-season recreation centers of European level. Moreover, the article has an information about a recreation centre location choice of the type etnocomplex “Joma-Jomyshka”. It is known that there are many sport and health recreation centers in the Perm region but there are no cultural and historical recreation centers. That’s why one of the objectives of this work is the development of an all-season recreation center concept. Much attention is given to the researches that includes an opinion poll, SWOT-analysis, territory assessment and retrieval of documents with the program of tourism development. According to the research results, the list of tourist attraction places was compiled. Than appropriate and meets all criteria for construction etnocomplex place was chosen. It is spoken in detail about reasons for choosing this place for building. Besides, a list of buildings and entertainment draws our attention that will be take a place in the etnopark. Also the text gives valuable information about main idea of complex, its formation and justification is described. The idea connects with favorite character of Russian fairytales. It is Baba Yaga or Joma by Komi-Perm. The article is of interests to a wide circle of readers and experts working in the given branch.
Modern buildings of preschool educational institutions: a comparison of trends in the development of architecture in the domestic and foreign practice of building
E.P. Kuznecova, A.Je. Sadykova
The article notes the importance of the design and construction of modern children's educational institutions. Considered several locations for the kindergartens and the comparative analysis of these premises. It is noted that to date, the majority of domestic kindergartens for various reasons do not meet modern requirements, but outlines some positive developments. A promising approach in the field of construction of children's educational institutions may be the construction of a complex of educational buildings. Analyses the main modern tendencies of development of architecture of DOW in Russia and other countries. A comparison of the main approaches in the design of children's educational institutions in us and abroad. The conclusion about necessity of application of advanced technologies and ideas of foreign colleagues in the practice of design and construction of buildings of preschool institutions, based on the requirements of normative documents on construction of our state.
N.B. Kuryakova, T.Y. Zapolskikh, A.V. Pirutskaya, I.A. Balashov, Z.D. Popyvanova
In the article, an experimental method for determining the heat losses enclosing structures of buildings using the thermal imager is considered. Relevance of determining heat losses enclosing structures of buildings is proved. Relevance of the problem of comfort educational buildings of higher educational institutions and the impact on her indoor climate and heat losses the building envelope is proved. Certain object of study - educational buildings of Perm universities. Subject of research is the heat losses of enclosing structures of buildings. The purpose of research is formulated as a definition of heat losses enclosing structures buildings universities of Perm experimental method using a thermal imager. Thermal imaging survey chosen buildings was conducted between December 2015 on February 2016. Conditions of thermal imaging survey buildings are presented. Survey results are presented and analyzed. The largest the heat losses are observed through the windows.
N.B. Kuryakova, M.A. Merkusheva
The article presents new bus station construction concept in the city of Perm. There is the relevance of this object realization on the basis of the city master plan and Strategic master-plan. The aim of the study to which the present article is devoted is to develop the concept of the bus station building. The paper describes the main points of perspective documents of the city development, involves the project "Transformation of the Territory of the Station Perm II", designates some transport problems of the city and also shortcomings of the existing bus station and its location. There were made the review of historic facts of transport connection of the city and the basic concepts were defined. The analysis of the domestic and foreign objects-analogs construction was carried out, their architectural and planning solutions, the composition of the premises were noted. It was determined number of storeys designed building, functionality and structure of the premises.
Analysis of preconditions and possibilities of the recreation of the European level in the Perm region
N.B. Kuriakova, Iu.M.Shaikhislamova
In the article the authors raised the problem of meeting the needs of visitors recreation centers in the Perm region. The urgency of the problem: of the quality of services, the problem of modernization of material-technical base of leisure facilities in the scope of the Perm region. Marked preconditions and possibilities of recreation European level in the Perm region. Тhe authors proposed the concept of a modern model of the recreation of the European level, as well as mandatory components of such a facility on the basis of an analysis of the competitive market. Selected on the basis of surveys conducted in accordance with specific criteria, an approximate location of the modern model of the recreation center in the Perm region. In the future, the authors suggest more research by the disclosure of each factor in the formation of modern recreation center on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the competitive market and foreign experience and, as a result, produce a rational model of a modern recreation center in the Perm Territory in accordance with the climatic characteristics, mentality and traditions of the inhabitants.
Analysis of the current requirements for the placement of air terminal complexes by the example of the Bolshoe Savino airport
R.V. Nigmatullina, L.V. Sosnovskikh
В статье анализируются факторы, которые необходимо учитывать при размещении и проектировании аэропортов. Для оценки параметров будущего аэропорта важно спрогнозировать уровень развития обслуживаемого региона с учётом его демографической структуры, географического положения, наличия альтернативного транспорта, данных о воздушных перевозках за прошлые годы. При прогнозировании пользуются демографической структурой региона, географическим положением, наличием альтернативного транспорта, социологическими и политическими факторами и данными о воздушных перевозках за прошлые годы. При выборе места расположения аэропорта необходимо наличие большого свободного участка земли, расположенного в достаточной близости к городской черте, а также наличие наземных транспортных связей с городом. При этом необходимо учитывать влияние эксплуатации аэропорта на окружающую среду, его шумовое воздействие. Важным требованием является также беспрепятственность полетов. Международный пермский аэропорт Большое Савино, построенный в 1952 году как военный, с 1967 года осуществляет пассажирские перевозки. За последние 10 лет он существенно расширил географию своих полётов. Значительно возросший пассажиропоток в ближайшие годы по предварительным прогнозам увеличится более чем вдвое. Анализ современных требований к размещению и проектированию аэровокзальных комплексов, рассмотренных в статье, позволяет понять существующие проблемы в эксплуатации пермского аэропорта Б. Савино, а также учесть их при проектировании и строительстве нового аэровокзального комплекса.
Design quality public space based on the formation of the functional content (for example, Extreme Park in Perm)
The article discusses the features of the public space, as well as the criteria for determining the quality of public space. Particular attention is paid to filling the space functions. It determines the nature of the functional content of the processes occurring in the public space, as well as the dynamics of the life of the territory. The object of investigation was selected Perm Extreme Park as an area having potential for development, as well as the opportunity to become a bright symbol of the city. The aim of the study was to identify the main and related functions for the area, which will help to attract more athletes to improve the quality of this unique public space, as well as revitalize the territory, which is empty most of the year. To answer the questions of a sociological survey method was applied, which was conducted through questionnaires in the Internet space. The bulk sample were young people who are fond of extreme sports. The article presents the results of the survey, the findings of the parameters of the existing and the desired use.
L.V. Sosnovskikh, E.V. Shaidurova
The desire to create a comfortable living environment is characteristic of man since ancient times. This article is devoted to the possibility of «smart home» system, which is gaining popularity in Russia. At the present time the owners of houses and apartments have problems, which the high-tech systems such as the «smart home» an solve. This article describes the variations of the system, their advantages and disadvantages, shows the approximate cost of installation. «Smart home» shows an example of a wide remote monitoring network - a «smart city». This article discusses the concept of «smart city» as the main direction of further social and economic city development, which can lead to a high quality of people’s life with a modified work of municipal administration. The system of «smart city» monitors urban infrastructure, from roads and to important architectural structures. The purpose of the system is providing the safety and properly allocating resources of program of the city development. The system of «smart city» is considered in the article as well as in a general sense, and in the example of the Russian project "Ilinskoe-Usovo". The planned neighborhood originally aimed to comfort, pays considerable attention to the interests of local residents. Author of the project - a group of companies "Morton", organized an open contest for the best architectural and planning decision of neighborhood "Ilinskoe-Usovo". After public hearings and public discussions, the designers have made significant changes to the original plan of the residential complex, for example they have reduced the number of storey’s of buildings up to 7-9 floors, have transformed the transport system in accordance with the wishes of residents. "Ilinskoe-Usovo" is one of the largest residential complexes in the group of «Morton» companies among suburban projects. Experience of introduction of systems of «smart home» and the «smart city» in Russia will allow to analyze their advantages and to consider disadvantages. As international experience shows, these systems are able to provide a new quality of life for the population.
Строительная механика. Моделирование физических процессов строительства. Строительные конструкции зданий и сооружений
A.V. Lykova, L.P. Abasheva
The article presents features of different ways of combining reinforced concrete slabs and steel main beams in steel-concrete composite span structures of bridges. On the basis of domestic and foreign experience of construction bridges is analyzed advantages and disadvantages used in steel-concrete composite bridges rigid and flexible abutments, a flexible inclined anchors, joins on high-strength bolts and bolt-adhesive joining, including developments of recent years. The analysis of existing methods of calculation of the basic ways of combining, presented in the normative literature, the results of which indicate the need for additional experimental and theoretical studies of the flexible and rigid abutments at various operating conditions bridge spans. Special consideration should be given to the behavior of abutments under dynamic loads and improvement of their calculation of endurance.
Accounting for thermal strains in the monitoring and development of technical solutions for the overhaul of load-bearing walls
R.R. Sadykova, I.L. Tonkov
In carrying frameless building brick walls and buildings with incomplete frame during operation for various reasons arise of damage in the form of cracks which affect the performance and durability of the building. Identification of such damage masonry - the process responsible and time-consuming. From the final conclusion depends largely on the alleged rationality of repair measures, their effectiveness and cost. As a result of complex engineering survey of a building with an incomplete skeleton in the city of Perm, external non-reinforced brick walls which damaged numerous through-cracks, as the main causes of damage to the operation of these base uneven deformation in the first years due to insufficient bearing capacity of the soil, and recommended monitoring the technical state. During the eight month of observation it was noticed that the opening width of cracks existing in the outer walls was varied in a larger and smaller side only with the onset of the cold season, particularly as a result of extreme temperatures. At the same time the emergence of new cracks have been recorded, which casts doubt on the effect only of geological factors. According to regulatory documents calculations outer brick wall on temperature effects were produced. Calculations confirmed that from the temperature difference in the masonry walls of buildings surveyed achieved tensile force sufficient for the formation of cracks. Also cracking calculated value coincides with the actual value obtained as a result of building monitoring. The performed studies have shown that the oscillation width of cracks in the masonry is directly related to the change in linear dimensions of each array of masonry, separate adjacent cracks. Accordingly, for preventing the disclosure of significant cracks after repair by injecting it is advisable to carry out an external wall insulation. Thereby not only to improve the insulating properties of the wall, but also decrease multiple oscillation outer surface of the wall temperature and consequently cracks repeated opening width does not exceed the standard values.
V. I. Sykulev, M. P. Son
The article considers three ways of modeling the columns and floor connection in-situ reinforced concrete buildings. The first model is linear finite element that has a common node with shell of floor slab. In the second model connection is carried by dint of absolutely rigid element. In the third model, columns modeled by dint of volume element. Calculation of all models was done using the software package Lira SAPR 2015. Calculation of all models was done using decreasing meshes: 1000, 500, 200, 150 mm. The results of calculations were supporting and interjacent moments in the floor slab. On the basis of the numerical experiment was performed analysis of calculation results - was performed analysis the impact of the selected method on the convergence of the results, were selected possible reasons for the difference between the results.
Assessment of a dynamic component of loading from a contact network of electrotransport in total the reasons of a collapse of an inhabited apartment house on Kuibyshev street, 103 in Perm
I.L. Tonkov, T.S. ZyryanovaI.L.
The hypothesis of dynamic impact on a bricklaying of an external wall of the fallen angular part of the house on Kuibysheva street, 103 in Perm in places of anchor fastening of suspension brackets of wires of a contact network of electrotransport, served as one of factors in total of causes of accident is made. The object of this study is to plot fell upon the outer wall of a five-story apartment building, located at the address: Perm, Sverdlovsk district, Kuibysheva street, 103. The aim of the study is to determine the dynamic loads on the anchors suspension catenary wires municipal electric exhaustive reason for the destruction of the outer walls of the building or masonry is one of the factors that triggered in conjunction with other defects and stress. For achievement of a research objective analytical approach of determination of the pulling-out force from a contact network with calculation of the bearing ability of a bricklaying on a cut on not tied up section is used.
Determination of defects and damage of reinforced concrete structures to the categories of technical condition
UDK: 658.012.1: 624.01
Y.L.Tonkov, A.Z.Chepulis, K.L.Sinani
The object of study is defects and damage of concrete constructions (types, classes, and options), which share in the civil and industrial building occupies a significant place. The purpose is systematize the information in the field of diagnostics and checking of reinforced concrete structures, identification of current methods of solving conflicts between different sources of information. The results of analysis and classification of information on the parameters of defects and damage of concrete constructions are presented in the work. This parameters define a category of technical state of constructions, buildings and structures, which obtained by studying the data of normative and technical documents, manuals and guidelines. As a result of the work creating a systematic, generalized and updated knowledge in the field of diagnostics of damage of reinforced concrete structures and automation of information in this area through the creation of intelligent systems to support decision-making has been identified.
Organizational and legal and methodological problems of the geotechnical forensic enquiry in the civil and arbitration procedure
О. Makovetsky, E. Ezhova
Ensuring the safety of the construction and operation of buildings and structures is a priority in the construction industry. While often during the technical examination the greater emphasis lies on overhead part of constructions, at the same time the safety of «construction-basis» of the system is no less important. The practice of justice system shows that the findings of forensic experts become priority evidence in civil and court cases. Currently, however, technical expertise of geotechnical situation, considered one of the most complex expertise problems, is not systematized. The article focuses on the problems of organizing and carrying out construction and technical expertise (including addressing issues related to the foundations, the underground parts of buildings and structures, geotechnical situations), carried out in the framework of legal proceedings. The purpose of the article - proposal of solutions aimed at the efficiency improvement of construction and technical expertise, whose subject is geotechnical design of buildings and structures. Analysis identified the need to develop theoretical approaches and guidelines for arrangement, production and formalization of construction and technical expertise of the geotechnical situation.
The impact of the separating sheet-piling wall, arranged between foundations of the operating buildings, on their settlement
Offered a model of strip foundation exploited buildings on clay soils for the assessment of his work with the bases loaded adjacent closely spaced foundation. Accepted a constructive solution of the separation sheet piling of CFA piles (vertical and inclined), arranged between the foundations. Calculated the settlement foundation of the existing building, their increments and assesses the results.
The calculation of the construction of a pedestrian crossing of corrugated metal structures using finite element method
O.V. Moiseeva, K.R. Kashapova, V.I. Kleveko
Question safety walking road users every day it becomes more acute due to the increase in the number of accidents involving pedestrians. One solution to this problem is the construction of pedestrian crossings, construction of which does not involve a direct crossing of pedestrians and vehicles flows. But often, the idea of the construction of such transitions reject because of the high cost. For a more economical construction of a pedestrian crossing structures are increasingly used metal corrugated construction. Companies profiled in the manufacture of corrugated metal structures, offer several types of sections, each of which is used in a particular area. Choose the most optimal cross-section of the device for a pedestrian crossing of corrugated metal structures. The calculation of the construction of a pedestrian crossing the finite element method in the software package PLAXIS 2D.
I.T. Mirsayapov, H.M. Sharaf
Abstract: The paper presents the results of experimental studies of strength and deformation of clay soils under traixial modal cyclic loading performed in the laboratory of the Department “of Foundations and Structural Dynamics of Engineering Geology.
R.I. Sofin, R.I. Shenkman
One of the main problems in the reconstruction of buildings and structures is to strengthen the foundations. Foundations of buildings during the operation lose strength: a partial destruction, cracks and other defects. This is due to natural or man-made factors such as differential settlement grounds, wooden elements rot, corrosion of reinforcement beams, undermining the bases of buildings. Unacceptable damage to the foundation may result in dangerous accidents. The purpose of this article is - the study of technology to strengthen the foundations of the reconstructed building with the use of injection piles. This method of strengthening the foundation is used as abroad and in our country, but is poorly studied and difficult conditions applicable in weak clay soils. The article presents an overview of the injection piles, the problem of their application in complex geological conditions of the city of Perm. A review of patents on this topic, consider the advantages and disadvantages. Briefly describes a method for calculating injection piles in weak clay soils to strengthen the foundations of reconstructed buildings. The authors briefly been considered practical experience of using injection piles in Russia and abroad. The scientific novelty of this study to assess the possibility of using such piles in geological conditions of the city of Perm. The urgency of the research topics disadvantages of injection piles in soft soils are described. The basic goals and objectives for further research on a selected topic of research..
A.A. Timshina, E.N. Sychkina
The article is dedicated to the problem of construction on slopes consisting of claystones. Purpose – analysis the stability of slopes consisting of claystones. Besides the authors assessed influence of physical flooding on properties of claystones, specifically: specific cohesion is reduced about 7 times, angle of internal friction and deformation module - more than 1.5 times. More than that, in the article. The authors presents the results of calculations of the stability factor. Results showing a decrease slope stability when the strength characteristics of claystones is changing. In the article the authors identified the main causes of the emergency. Besides, in the article is offered recommendations to address the emergency, such as: organization of surface and groundwater runoff, filter reinforced concrete retaining wall.
Load-carrying Capacity and precipitation reinforced vertical and horizontal elements of the soil foundation
R.A. Sharafutdinov, I.T. Mirsayapov
Abstract: the results of research of influence phased static load on the soil model with vertical and horizontal reinforcement. When conducting the flume tests defined deformation of the soil. Load application is made in stages with the load changes. Based on these data, a graph of the dependence of precipitation on the number of stages. The analysis of the graphic dependencies, which shows that the deformation of the soil varies.
The necessity taking into account to compaction in the calculation of the settlement piles in clay stone
E.N. Sychkina, N.L. Volgareva
This article deals with the problem of forecasting settlement piles in clay stone in the design of pile foundations. Reviewed the question of necessity of the account of compaction in the calculation of the settlement of single piles. Defined zone of compaction, forming as a result of pile driving. We analyzed data of full-scale field tests of piles static load experimental site Perm. The calculation of the settlement of single piles considering the areas of the seals by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D and analytical method SP 24.13330.2011. The results of settlement calculation of single piles by numerical methods using the different models are compared with the results of calculation the analytical method and the data of natural experiments. Recommendations on forecast settlement single piles in clay stone.
Comparison the results of vertical foundation settlement calculation received by the analytical method and the finite element method
Various software systems are often used nowadays. They are applied to solve different geotechnical problems. It is explained by next that in our time there is a need for the efficiency of design. PLAXIS is one of such programs, which allows us to solve various problems fast and reasonably at different stages of construction. The program represents a complex of final elements, which is intended for the two-dimensional analysis of deformation and stability of geotechnical constructions. This article shows the calculations results of the foundation settlement of a mast of lighting. These values were defined by two methods. The first is the analytical method, and the second - the method of final elements. The analytical method of calculation was made on the basis of the normative document, which acts on the territory of the Russian Federation. While the finite element method was calculated using the PLAXIS 2D program. Comparison of the received results has shown the efficiency of use of this software system for calculation of the foundation on soft ground.
UDK: Evaluation of technology of vertical soil freezing
K.S. Yadovina, S.S. Lashova, S.V. Kaloshina
In this article the technology of natural and artificial freezing of soil, in particular freezing of vertical workings of small depth, is considered step by step. This topic is highly relevant in areas of permafrost and under the conditions of the urban underground construction on difficult soil. Thus, the main problems associated with natural and artificial soils freezing and their possible solutions are designated. The vertical process of artificial freezing of soils during excavation of pits and trenches is presented. Possible ways of freezing are described: brine, unbrine and combined. Traditional and new options of the working refrigerating substances for each method with the indication of their applicability are given. The analysis of dependence of time spent for works on freezing, and its overall cost from distance between the freezing wells is carried out on the example of a construction ditch. The ratio between change of heat conductivity of the frozen soil and expenses of time and cost of works is similarly revealed. The estimation of efficiency of application of natural and artificial soils freezing is given.
The efficiency of affort indentation of prefabricated reinforced concrete piles in urban environments
The article discusses the pile indentation equipment for dive prefabricated reinforced concrete piles which is used in clay soils in urban environments. Different modifications have been prepared during the period of equipment’s exploitation. The article describes a structure of the device and its operating principle. The principle of device based on the conversion parameters of pressure hydraulic system of pile indentation equipment during the pile diving into an electrical signal that is converted to digital information. The article performed an analysis and the generalization of the results of experimental research and economic efficiency.
Yu.A. Kuznecova, S.I. Vahrushev
In this article the object of research is the bulldozer. The subject of the research is the longevity of the dozer. The urgency of the problem due to the high demand for the use of bulldozers, which entails a high financial costs for the restoration of this machine. The article sets the task of analysis the changes in the design of the working equipment of the bulldozer, also examines the impact of application of different components of the longevity of the dozer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the strengths and weaknesses in the equipment, finding different ways to improve the durability of bulldozers, to study of the constructive features of the machine. Design and operational features of the bulldozers were identified.. The factors of external environment that have a negative impact on the operation of the machine were identified too. Different schemes of hydraulic equipment, bulldozers and the main structural elements, principles of their working were explained. The differences, the strengths and weaknesses of all considered design solutions were identified and justified. By using such devices as: compensation cylinders comprising a hydraulic drive, a vertical elastic connection between the car and the equipment, isolation of flexible hoses connected to the hydraulic drive, a Ripper tooth and the crank is achieved the increased longevity of the bulldozers. It justifies expediency of use of the hydraulic drive, in particular hydraulic cylinders for controlling the position of the blade. As a result of the study revealed the best device that allows increasing the longevity of the dozer. The durability of the device is achieved by means of hydraulic cylinders-the sensor and compensating cylinders. It should also be noted that in theinvention, using the accumulator of stored energy can reduce the costs of energy required for the operation of the bulldozer.
The object of research is the monolithic housing construction, technology of erection of concrete buildings and structures, which is one of the most perspectives. The purpose of research is to study the advantages and disadvantages, main characteristics one of the technology of monolithic high-rise building in a tunnel formwork and trends of it. The basic characteristics were identified. The study revealed the relevance of using this type of formwork in monolithic housing construction. Application of tunnel formwork allows erecting the building as soon as possible having variety of shapes and sizes. This technology improves the quality and accuracy of the erection of buildings, and allows saving on finishing processes. To date, monolithic housing construction is in demand in the Russian construction market, this technology has a great future.
K.S. Lezina, S.I. Vahrushev
The article investigates accidents and injuries resulting from the operation of tower cranes. The above analysis and the identification of ways to reduce accidents and injuries. The study used the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, induction, synthesis. The problems requiring immediate solutions: strengthening the work of supervisory authorities are also responsible for the operation of the lifting means, with certain defects, leading to injuries and accidents; tracking the dynamics of improvement or deterioration of the injury and accident statistics in comparing different types of cranes. Showing statistics on research in Russia for 2011-2014, analyzed the causes of accidents that result in injuries of varying severity. Studied examples of accidents cranes. Reveals the most important aspects, such as the need to improve the quality of technical supervision for the safe operation of cranes, mechanization and automation of production, improvement of technological processes when working with tower cranes, timely decommissioning of equipment, spent a settlement resource, creation of proper working conditions for the safe and high-performance operation of tower cranes machinists. The necessity of providing construction companies with highly qualified personnel, in order to improve the training of engineers, improve the quality inspection and control of visual inspection equipment. The article contains recommendations aimed at reducing accidents in the operation of tower cranes.
The article covers the history of the emergence and application of Venetian Plaster finishing work. It showed her composition used in the past. The article told modern surface technology of Venetian plaster. The urgency of the research, to identify environmentally friendly and long-term in the application of finishing materials to help improve and enhance the architectural and aesthetic and protective qualities of the operational structure. The classification and application technology of Venetian plaster with different equipment. Advantages and disadvantages of plaster, giving a complete picture of this finishing material. The paper used the methods of qualitative analysis, induction, synthesis, allowing to analyze the subject more deeply. The efficiency of application in the construction of Venetian plaster, creating a spirit of European Middle Ages in modern style decoration.
S.A. Martynova, S.I. Vakhrushev
The main problems of providing a high level of competitiveness of the Russian technique, and ways of their efficient elimination are considered, the assessment of level of ability to participate in competitive fight of domestic producers against foreign is carried out in the article. An object of this research is the Russian market of construction equipment. Purposes of my studying: to give the characteristic to structural cars in Russia, (to estimate the volume and dynamics of the market, to characterize park of the Russian Federation equipment, to provide the forecast of development for the next years on a world car market, to analyse production of structural cars of the largest domestic companies on such technique as the bulldozer, the grader, the excavator). Such methods as an induction (from the particular to the general), qualitative, quantitative and comparative analyses were for this purpose used. Particular types of cars, their sales, production and situation on a car market, and also influence on national economy in general were investigated. Economic indexes from 2000 to 2015 were brought and compared, and also the direction of development of the Russian specialized technique was analysed. The conclusions received as a result of the analysis say that now many domestic producers of special equipment fill up the market with the most different models of structural cars. The market of construction equipment actively develops, showing a stable increase annually. The tendency to body height was outlined still about ten years ago when the structural direction actively began to develop, volumes of construction of constructions and buildings inhabited and production increased.
А.А. Mosheva, S.I. Vahrushev
This article discusses and analyzes the features of soil compaction by road rollers. Soil compaction in the coating is one of the most important and at the same time the most difficult road-building operations. The problem is that the quality of soil compaction depends on many factors: experience and skillsof builders, sortof asphalt concrete and its constituent materials, used machines,conditions of substrate and roadbed, climatic conditions, work organization and technology. Are analyzed various types of rollers and their performances, conducted research of the time layout and seal a mixture in depend on the thickness of the layer and weather conditions. The choice of speed of movement and the length of the working capture - is the most important moment in the organization of compaction, the organization of this process is also described and analyzed in article.
M.V. Nekrasova, S.V. Kaloshina
This article describes the main factors causing organizational and technological risks, such as:. A partial volume of the materials, the lack of qualified working staff, lack of control at the construction site, errors in the working documents, untimely inspection of construction equipment, etc. It is shown how it is possible to take into account organizational and technological risks in the project construction organization and design of the work. Particular attention is paid to obtain the maximum profit of the general contractor at the lowest cost. The methodology of calculation of the economic effects of the contractor during the development of the project of construction organization and design of the work. Results from some parts of the project shall comprise the organization of construction work and the production of the project and how to have the economic effect of the contractor can be taken into account. Presents risk management methods, such as methods of risk aversion, risk methods of localization, the methods of risk diversification, methods of risk compensation.
Проблема производства в наши дни всегда сводится к одному, а именно к времени производства работ. Чтобы сократить время производства и в общем ускорить его процесс, а также снизить себестоимость, предлагается кабельный кран на шасси отечественного грузово
Проблема производства в наши дни всегда сводится к одному, а именно к времени производства работ. Чтобы сократить время производства и в общем ускорить его процесс, а также снизить себестоимость, предлагается кабельный кран на шасси отечественного грузового автомобиля. Кабельные краны предназначены для обслуживания больших производственных площадей и перемещения больших объёмов грузов на протяженные расстояния, они широко используются для ускорения работ на строительных площадках, судостроительных верфях, плотинах, угольных и лесных складах и для транспортировки через реки и другие протяженные объекты. Кабельный кран может использоваться при строительстве на сложном рельефе местности, где работа другого крана является затруднительной, а также при строительстве на участках с большой протяженностью или площадью застройки. При этом кран позволяет доставлять строительные материалы непосредственно к месту их использования с пункта складирования, расположенного на строительной площадке. В данной статье представлены расчётные формулы, которые могли бы определить технические характеристики строительной машины в соответствии с востребованностью их использования: формулы для подбора канатов, высоты мачт кабельного крана, нагрузки на канаты, ОПУ, а также опор крана. Подводя итоги, мы можем определять характеристики крана на основе данных расчётов, а также подбирать и создавать его рабочие органы и необходимые детали в соответствиис требованиями потенциальных заказчиков данной машины.
M.V. Rubtsova, A.M. Soldatenkova, S.V. Kaloshina
Nowadays an important moment in the construction are the terms and the cost of construction of residential buildings. It should be noted that as a significant advantage can be a high degree of prefabrication and as a result, the relative simplicity of construction and ease of installation. The active development of the industry and the constant search for new solutions to give rise to a variety of building construction technology. But many of them do not find the consumer or due to ignorance and lack of certain advertising, remain largely unknown. The article contains a description of two technologies which are rarely used in our country. Both of them are used for the construction of low-rise buildings - namely the construction of buildings with the use of SIP-panels and 3D-panels. The comparative analysis of these technologies, their advantages, disadvantages and the main differences are listed.
Статья посвящена теме высотного строительства в России. Рассмотрены основные проблемы и особенности, в частности несовершенство нормативных документов. Приведены рейтинги самых высоких зданий в России и мире. Дана оценка развитию высотного строительства в
The article is dedicated to the topic of high-rise construction in Russia. The main problems and peculiarities particularly imperfection of regulations are considered. It is shown the ratings of the tallest buildings in Russia and in the world. Assessment of development of high-rise construction in Russia is made. The article gives an analysis of high-rise construction’s market in Perm city and compares it with Ekaterinburg. It reveals the problems which developers are facing during getting the permission to high-rise construction in Perm city. Also the article reveals some inconsistencies in rules of land use, development and master plan in Perm. The examples of changing the rules of land use and development concerning high-rise construction are given. Conclusions are drawn about rational location of high-rise building in the city.
Summary – Processes of construction of skyscrapers are considered, various problems of construction of skyscrapers and their decision are established and stated. Relevance of construction of skyscrapers is caused by annually growing cost of the land plots in the center of megalopolises. In article the construction materials used for production of the bearing designs of skyscrapers are considered, technologies of delivery and supply of concrete, implementation of raising of people, construction materials and designs on considerable height are considered. Technologies of construction of the bases of skyscrapers, technologies of installation of a facade of high-rise buildings and questions of safety of workers at big height are considered.
D.A. Semenov, S.V. Kaloshina
The classification of artificial islands and their construction methods identified the main shortcomings of traditional methods. The technology and operation Geotube®. The main sizes of containers Geotube®. Painted the order of works on the construction of embankments. The advantages and disadvantages of this technology. The scheme Geotube® stacking containers, artificial island Federation project. An example of the construction of the first artificial island using Geotube® technology - Amwaj Islands Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. Based on the example of the analytical method was found most suitable place in the sea on the territory of the Russian Federation for the construction of man-made mounds to address the specific needs of the country. We describe the various applications of this technology, and based on all available information, it was concluded by the present invention.
E.O. Trenogin, S.I. Vakhrushev
The article deals with the possible construction of work equipment single-bucket hydraulic excavator based on patent research. The analysis of inventions reviews their operating principle. It is revealed as positive as negative effects from innovation. It is noticed fundamental differences from similar prototypes. The article gives information about the most perspective directions of the modernization in construction of single bucket hydraulic excavator. On the basis of patent construction research of replaceable excavator’s work equipment is presented their classification. The aim of the article is to explore the perspective of working equipment single-bucket hydraulic excavator’s structure which could provide the increase of excavation productivity. The paper presents the inventions which are designed not only to increase the production efficiency, but also to increase the reliability of the equipment, and to extend their technical functionality. Among the most effective inventions stands out extended bucket with reinforced walls which can increase the production of soil excavation. Modification of the teeth can increase reliability through the use of wear-resistant materials and special geometries. Combined working equipment consisting the parallel located disk ripper, bucket and ripper tooth.
M.Y. Trefilov, S.I. Vahrushev
Uptime hydraulic drive and therefore its reliability is a necessary aspect of the study, as the main mechanism for lifting devices is precisely hydraulic. Accordingly, this article focuses on the study of the reliability of the hydraulic drive lifts. To do this, consider some common connection between the laws of distribution of time to failure and the failure of a physical entity, namely, the failure rate is considered a schedule depending on time of use of hydraulic drive and explained the physical meaning of the failure rate. Also shows a diagram of the hydraulic drive lift and described the principle of operation of the hydraulic drive. Particular attention is paid to assessing the reliability of the hydraulic drive on the basis of the exponential law of reliability. Then compares the probability of failure-free operation of the mechanism for the different number of hours of operation of hydraulic drive. This theme is complemented by the modern method of examination and analysis of the causes of failures on the basis of the scheme of causality. In the first stage of the method is carried out calculation of the total index of the functional elements of the hydraulic drive reliability and assesses performance hydraulic drive, while refusing all elements of the system. The second step assesses the reliability of the hydraulic drive on the level of gravity of the manifest failure taking account of the refusal on the basis of calculations of indicators of elements of critical failures of hydraulic drive. In conclusion, given the results of the analyzes and conclusions of the calculations. It is a question how the reliability of the hydraulic drive with the passage of time and the reasons for this change, as well as notes which elements of the hydraulic drive have the largest and smallest functional reliability.
M.Y. Trefilov, A.E. Petrov, S.V. Kaloshina
Concrete is one of the main materials in the construction, they are used widely. This article is devoted to investigation of characteristics of concrete on the basis of two binders: nanotsementa and Portland cement. Certain types of cements. A table of the material composition nanotsementa. Described its production technology and a diagram. Are views modifiers used in the manufacture nanotsementa. Considered part of the building of concrete, as well as indicators of quality of concrete. This analysis is supplemented topic concrete characteristics, namely comparing concretes based on Portland cement and nanotsementa frost resistance, compressive strength and flexural strength. Also, the dependence of strength while reducing the consumption of Portland cement in the manufacture nanotsementa.
E.V. Shaidurova E.V., S.I. Vakhrushev
This article is dedicated to innovations in the field of disk brake, the braking process, the main advantages of disk brakes and brake construction are stated. The large attention was paid also to creation history of disk brake. In this article you can find the main patent inventions of disk brake such as disk-block brake by E.P Raksha, car disk brake by Gerard Le Dei, disk brake with refind recoil by Hosep Ruiz Buskets, disk brale by Siverinsson Larse, brake shoe with liquid cooler by V.V. Selifonov, S.I.Damdin, disk brake by G.I. Mamiti and others. For example, in the invention by Selifonov V.V. and Damdin S.I. there is a new technology. It includes that cooler frame is designed in the common iron pipe order installed inside the shoe concentric its axis from the backside in such a way that there is no clearance between the iron pipe and the shoe frame. Besides the main direction of brake development among patent invention is determined. Every patent invention is examined from different sides: prototype deference, main details and their connection, the working way. The purpose of the research is to define advantages and disadvantages of disk brakes in comparation with other types of brakes, to determine the main elements of braking process, their improvement relatively their prototypes. The research methods are patent search, studying and generalization, analysis and synthesis. The main results include the following facts. The direction of disk brake development, it means the support construction improvement, is exposed. The own scheme of wear check indicator based on prototypes investigated earlier is stated.
E.V. Shaidurova, S.V. Kaloshina
Most modern countries have in common - a fast-paced life that is reflected in the construction. Nowadays, the process of construction requires high quality and speed of work as in the manufacture of structures and the construction site. In this regard, prefabricated houses so rapidly spreading. The aim of the research in this paper - a comparison of different technologies erection of buildings: the construction of prefabricated buildings using permanent formwork, using 3D - panels and frame housing. In this article, a comparison was made 3 above technology of prefabricated buildings with the usual technology of erection of brick houses. A comparison was made on the following grounds: construction time at home (for example, taken from a house the size of 6 * 9 m), operation and maintenance, material density and thermal conductivity of the wall material, accuracy and workability, weather resistance, durability and environmental friendliness. Collated key moments 3 technologies, the advantages and disadvantages, application. In addition, a comparison of manufacturers of permanent formwork such as Plastbau-3, Izod and Thermo. Comparison of permanent formwork technology was carried out according to the following classification criteria: the size of the products, the possibility of reinforcement, the possible height of constructed buildings of concrete compaction process, the concrete pouring process and advanced technology of prefabricated buildings with the use of permanent formwork.
P.S. Shanko, A.V. Shishkina, S.V. Kaloshina.
This article contains information about the history and origin of the idea of the construction of the dome. Consider the feasibility of building domed buildings of any purpose. It raises questions about the strength, economic, environmental, and aesthetic and other advantages and disadvantages of small domed structure. Visually calculated the volume and surface area of the dome of the building and the building in the shape of the box, in order to prove greater energy efficiency geodoma, in terms of compactness of the building. Some characteristics of the dome - house in comparison with a conventional building of the cubic type. Characteristics are compared with each other and are summarized in the table for the evaluation and comparison of the most important parameters in the construction. Also in the article describes the following technology of erection of buildings dome: the dome construction on the basis of a geodesic sphere, the construction of buildings on the basis pneumoframework, methods of building dome homes on the basis of permanent formwork and building factory production.
This article is devoted to modern environmental problems and their solutions. The issues involved was held in 2015, the year of the 21st session of the Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention in Paris on climate change issues and government programs on Russian energy and resource saving. We consider the theoretical material on the use of solar energy as a form of alternative energy sources. The question of the volume of solar radiation received at the Earth's surface. The main types of converters, using solar energy as a source for the production of electrical energy, considered their advantages and disadvantages, are presented in more detail photoelectric converters. The variants of the use of solar energy in the home of man. Particular attention is paid to the situation in agriculture is analyzed the current situation, the shortcomings of existing methods of energy now remote areas, considered the prospect of using solar energy for such identified locations are diagrams of possible technological installations using energy from the sun. The conclusion is drawn on the prospects and possibilities of using this technology, and provides suggestions for further development of solar energy.
T.S. Museev1, K.V. Soldatov1, I.I. Danilov2
In the article there are microfiltration technology with variable pore structure designed to purify water from the insoluble particulate matter. The technology is of particular interest to design engineers reservoir pressure maintenance systems of oil and gas, water treatment, sewage treatment, industrial enterprises in various industries. The principles of operation microfilters with variable pore structure and their main structural elements, the technological scheme of work. In writing the article used by both domestic and foreign sources of information related to the subject of this article. The article written by the method of comparing the scientific consideration of object of research with existing analogues, analysis of information, making inferences. On the basis of the material presented conclusion about the prospects of the use of microfilters with variable pore structure for mechanical treatment of water. To determine the feasibility of this technology in industrial enterprises of the Russian Federation to carry out additional experimental research is needed.for water treatment and wastewater treatment
S.V. Novikov , M.S. Pletneva
Adsorption is a universal physico-chemical method, allowing practically completely to remove the organic impurities from a gas or liquid medium. It is not surprising that the study of adsorption process is the subject of lots of scientific papers. However, most studies on the use of adsorbents in the field of deep water treatment on various aspects of production and application of activated carbons (AC), which is one of the most common adsorbents. This article discusses the potential of using non-woven carbon fibrous sorbents, whose production is based on sintering and subsequent activation of the cellulose fibers with special methods. Studies of sorption of water purification in a laboratory setting using simulation solutions. In the form of tables presents the results obtained. Conclusions are made about the use of ASM material as the filtering element.Class article applies to research. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the formulation and solution of a new problem. The reliability of the results is not in doubt. The article has a practical significance. The style of presentation is good, informative tables, figures acceptable.
Experience in the use of software for the engineering of heat supply system and heating system of buildings
UDK: 004.451.44 (697.1)
A. R. Nurmukhametova, A.I. Burkov
The development and progress of contemporary society poses in front of engineers a new task are becoming more complex. Moreover, the time to solve a new task is decreasing. However, at the same time achievement of civilization in the area of information technology and software greatly simplifies and speeds up the design process. Therefore, novel engineer activity is very closely linked with computer technology and software products. This article considering several types of software for plan engineering systems of buildings, such as heating supply network and heating system of buildings. The purpose of this article is to reveal the series of possibilities and so to assess the advantages and disadvantages of software products for the design heating supply network and heating system of buildings.
E.O. Petuhova, O.I. Ruchkinova
This article describes and analyzes energy-saving technologies that can be used in water and wastewater sys-tems. It listed the main problems of this sector. An overview of the main measures to improve energy efficiency in housing and communal services of water supply and sewage systems by the management companies and from con-sumers taking into account the possible economic effect. For outdoor water supply and sewerage systems contains detailed classification of organizational, technical and technological energy-saving measures, depending on the cost of their implementation, taking into account the payback period. Obtained solutions about major problems in the field of water supply and sewage. The result of the work are the findings about the prospects of the use of energy-saving technologies in the sphere of housing and communal services.
L.V. Pleshkova, S.V. Novikov, O.I. Ruchkinova
Article is devoted to a subject actual today – application of a benchmarking in the sphere of water supply and water disposal. The concept of "benchmarking", his types, the purposes, and also his benefit reveals. The benchmarking technique in water supply and water disposal is considered. Examples of use of the tool of a benchmarking in foreign countries and in Russia, in such cities as Yekaterinburg and St. Petersburg are given. The main groups and indicators of system of a benchmarking of the American association of the enterprises of a water management are allocated. In Yekaterinburg – a benchmarking of a financial and economic condition of the enterprises of the sphere of VKH. In St. Petersburg – a benchmarking on "target" indicators. On the basis of all above, are revealed indicators for a water utility of the city of Perm are recommended for application. And the conclusion is also drawn on such tool important today as a benchmarking for increase of management efficiency of the enterprises in the municipal sphere.
UDK: 697.34: 621.311
I.S. Soboleva, E.V. Yur′eva, M.E. Orlov
The article deals with problem of increasing the efficiency and economy of the heating system from the CHP. The possibilities of reducing the return water temperature to increase the thermal electric power generation at thermal consumption are discribes. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of using low-grade heat sources. To solve this problem technology of thermal power plants with the use of heat pump systems that reduce the return water temperature returned by consumers for thermal power plants are proposed, it is useful to use the heat for pre-heating the air supplied to the boiler furnace combustion. Also it proposed to use the heat of the circulating water used in the condensers of steam turbines. The result of the proposed technologies is to reduce fuel consumption, improve the efficiency and reliability of thermal power plants.
M.A. Subbotina, A.V. Kungurova
The article analyzes the method of obtaining electrical energy from living native wood by using a potential difference within the ground and within wooden structures. The American company MagCap Engineering took up a new project for the production of electricity. As a result of experiments, the engineers made sure that can be extracted from a living tree a few fractions of a volt. Using the described method, and using low-cost in terms of electricity consumption LED lamps, there is an opportunity cost and the clock warning fire alarm system or lighting park walkways and streets of the city without any harm to the environment, consisting in the fact that in this case will not be used combustible fuel, used for the production of electric energy in the urban environment of centralized power systems.
E.S. Tokareva, A.A. Melehin, O.I. Ruchkinova
The article describes the advantages of the technology, including economic, environmental, and engineering, as well as drawbacks: the conclusion of the impact on the architectural and planning solutions structures on the basis of information, design features, the cost of construction and operation of "green" roof. We analyze the use of the discussed technologies abroad, are some experimental data on the performance data of roofs. Details compared characteristics of intensive and extensive roof greening systems for plant type, the type substraktov, the ratio of minerals, and other components, the difference in the scheme of the device (architectural and technological), the result of comparison is the figure the cost of these systems. Examples of devices and implementation of sports and children's playgrounds, places of recreation in the city of Perm with the use of technology "green" roofs.
A.V. Garifulova, A.К. Alvanian
the article suggests measures on land recultivation and environmental protection on the elimination of Luniewskogo career.
I.А. Zvereva, D.S. Lbova, V.I. Kachenov
the article presents data on the swelling of clay soils kaolinite and montmorillonite composition depending on their original density, particle size distribution and mineral composition.
K.V. Kasatkina, V.V. Seridin
it is experimentally established that with increasing content of pore fluids in clays, the cohesion increases and internal friction angle are reduced. When contamination of clays by hydrocarbons in the formation of their strength properties of the decisive role played by the viscosity of the pore fluid.
A.S. Matsievskij, M.V. Pashkov, V.V. Seridin
The experimental data about oil influence on the strength properties of bentonite clays were submitted. Comparing the values of cohesion of clay, where the pore solution is water and engine oil, we observe that the value of the cohesion is reduced in five times and, on the contrary, the internal friction angle takes the high value in clays where the pore solution is an engine oil.
UDK: 628.1 (624.154.5)
The trend of increasing world population leads to many problems, one of which is an increase of fresh drinking water shortage. By 2030, the planet will face a 40% shortage of fresh water, if we do not dramatically improve the management of this valuable resource. Such a conclusion was made in the report, «Water for Sustainable Peace», the United Nations 2015.
M.A. Nekrasov, V.V. Seridin
Developed a method of engineering-geological zoning based on multidimensional probabilistic-statistical evaluation of classification rate Z obtained by calculating the discriminant functions. The implementation of this approach in practice will improve the reliability and validity of engineering geological maps and charts
Zh.Iu. Ponomareva, D.M. Dimuhametov
Physical descriptions of sandy material are Studied, experiments are conducted physical laboratory design during vertical filtration, dependences are set between time, by volume of bearing-out and by deformation of surface.
This is an article about aggressiveness of groundwater, its manifestations and localization on the territory of Perm. The purpose of research was to determine different types of aggressive water and its locations. Described mechanisms of action of various reagents on the material of foundations. It was determined that on the territory of the Perm the study of carbon dioxide and sulfate aggressiveness of underground water deserves special attention. Sulfate aggressiveness manifested great way on the territory of Motovilikhinsky district. Carbon dioxide type of aggression presented in the Kirovsky, Motovilikhinsky districts of Perm. Long-term monitoring of groundwater on the territory of Perm indicates that the chemical composition of these waters is unstable, water are metamorphisize in connection with human activities. It is important that the aggressiveness of groundwater in Perm, though not a high priority, but is becoming increasingly important.
The results of repeated sampling of hydrogeochemical unknown spring in Gaynsky District of Perm Krai, nicknamed by locals holy source for its healing properties.. Ecologically, the source refers to the prosperous - low population density, lack of industrial enterprises. Hydrogeologically he is confined to the eastern European basin system to Veslyanskomu basin, aquifer Middle Jurassic. The chemical composition of spring waters was studied in two trials in the summer and in the winter time. As a result of studies, increased silver content was found in the water source. In further detailed hydrogeological studies it gives the possibility of opening a new hydrogeochemical provinces with a high silver content and high-quality water for drinking water supply.
V.V. Seridin, N.A. Medvedeva, Iu.O. Malgina, T.A. Peshkova
it was established experimentally that the Zeta potential of kaolinite in the clay is two times higher than in montmorillonite clay, but does not exceed ξ<30 mV. In the studied mixtures observed molecular attraction of colloids in montmorillonite and kaolinite clays, as evidenced by the values of ξ<30 mV.
O.S. Siteva, A.V. Andrianov, V.V. Seridin
based on the survey assessed the engineering-geological conditions of land for the construction of a residential house in the Perm region. Obtained following engineering-geological elements (EGE) EGE 1 - loam firm-stiff (aQ); EGE 2 - loam soft-firm (aQ); EGE 3 - loam very soft-firm (aQ).
K.A. Tamoian, V.V. Seridin
studied engineering-geological conditions of the deposit, isolated engineering-geological elements, given the basic physical and mechanical properties of soils.
R.R. Faizov, D.M. Dimuhametov
Quantitative suffusion forecast is based on a mathematical or physical models of varying degrees of complexity, but their correct display requires a serious qualitative analysis of the geological conditions of the development process, understanding the mechanism and its interaction with harakte¬ra technosphere. Projections, based on field experiments are characterized by high reliability, so based on the experience of physical modeling suffusion processes has been developed and tested the filter tray suffusion of laboratory simulation in the sandy soil. Carried out in a filtration device experiences allow us to trace the development stage suffusion in sandy soils, to quantify the rate of formation of voids and gaps in the soil strata conditions close to natural. Mathematical processing of the results was carried out.
A.S. Khrulev, V.V. Seridin
The formation of the strength, deformation and physical properties of fine-grained soil are somewhat dif-ferent from the formation of the same properties in the rock and semi rock. When loading the body around the defect occurs stress concentration that causes growth and dis-gation of cracks. This process leads to the for-mation of the main crack of rock destruction.It was established experimentally that the temperature of the mate-rial (∆t) in the main zone of fracture is controlled by material type and stress state. With increasing rock strength ∆t increases. Under uniaxial tension observed minimum value of ∆t, and under uniaxial compression ∆t naturally increases.
E.A. Churakova, A.К. Alvanian
the article presents the engineering-geological assessment Seledtskogo deposits of gypsum. It is shown that sakartveloshi depends on the capacity of overburden.
M.R. Yadzinskaya, V.V. Seridin
it was established experimentally that when contaminated clay soils by the oil to 2.5% in them the processes of coagulation. The regularities of changes in strength properties of clay soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. Developed mathematical models to predict adhesion and angle of internal friction of clays.
M.R. Yadzinskaya, V.V. Seridin
the aim is regionalization of the area based on multivariate statistical evaluation of classification indicator. The technique of zoning is reduced to the classification rate (CR), estimates of multivariate statistical criterion, the justification of the boundary values of Cu, preparation of model zoning and the separation of taxa. As classification metric can be used multivariate statistical criterion of R discriminant functions.
K.A. Saraykina, V.A. Golubev
Protect of basalt fiber by chemical corrosion in cements possible using of ultra-dispersed active modifiers. It can reduce alkaline of environment, in this case, it increase the density of the cement matrix in the contact with basalt fiber by including nano-dispersed additives due to the structural modification of the system. The paper is assessed the combined influence of metakaolin and the dispersion of carbon nanotubes on the basalt fiber concrete structure and properties. conducted researches demonstrate the effectiveness of metakaolin to protect basalt fiber by alkaline degradation of cement concrete due to the formation of calcium hydroaluminosilicates, and the use of carbon nanotubes contributes to compaction the contact zone of the "basalt fiber - cement stone", thereby increasing the durability and strength characteristics of basalt fiber concrete in whole.
V.A. Shamanov, V.A. Golubev
Results of the analysis of the main reasons for decline in quality of a gas concrete of autoclave curing are presented in article. It is shown that change only of the technological modes by production of blocks from cellular concrete of autoclave curing doesn't promote decrease in average daily volume of marriage lower than 10%, at the same time the greatest percent of marriage should be connected not only with a human factor. For example, change of quality of a silicic component on an indicator of content of active silicon dioxide doesn't fit into normal distribution that exerts considerable impact on stability of characteristics of an autoclave gas concrete. By results of research it is established that instability of quality of the applied input products is the prime reason of decline in quality of products.
V.E. Yuzhaninov, K.K. Karpova
The article deals with one of the most common materials traditionally used in the construction of buildings and structures - ceramic brick. As with any production materials, the ceramic brick production has defect. Defect reduces the quality of the finished product, it is necessary to control the defect does not prevent it in the first stages of production to improve product quality. The authors describe the possible causes of the defect reception of ceramic bricks in its production. This stage of production product such as pressing, drying and firing. Based on the author analysis we presented possible ways of reducing the defect of products at every stage of its production.
The article presents the results of research on the composition of coloured dry mortars for floors strengthening. The type of pigment used for creating coloured toppings is defined. The optimum quantity of colouring pigments of different tones due to criteria of an appropriate shade and minimum cost is selected.