Колонка редактора - Eng
Выпуск №8: По материалам IX Всероссийской молодежной конференции аспирантов, молодых ученых и студентов «СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ. ТЕОРИЯ И ПРАКТИКА», (Часть I ,июнь, 2017)
Градостроительство. Теория развития города. Теория и история архитектуры, реконструкция и реставрация архитектурного наследия
M. Baidak, D. Sursanov
Every year the number of motor transport promptly grows in the large cities of Russia and with respect thereto sharply there is a question of placement of motor transport within the city, in particular about house adjoining parking for inhabitants of apartment houses. As well as in former years in the city high speed of construction of new housing remains, however only 35 objects built with an underground type of a parking as one of the most progressive and rational methods of the problem resolution of house adjoining parkings that constitutes only 14% of total number of the built housing in the city for the last 6 years.
D.A. Davydovа, E.P. Kuznetsova, S.V. Maksimova
In the article circomstances and reasons owing to which Permskaya street in Leninsky district of Perm city didn’t take place as a popular pedestrian zone are giving. The place and an important meaning of public spaces and pedestrian streets in a city’s structure are describing: influence on city’s brend, demand among the tourists, development of the local business. Necessity in estetic embodiment of public spaces and careful relation to historical cultural heritage are pointing. The aim of the article is to understand the reasons of unsuccessful experience of pedestrian zone on Permskaya street creation and to give recommendations on how to eliminate theese reasons. In the article there is a short information about Permskaya street’s history and architectural monuments. History of creating and functioning of pedestrian zone on Permskaya street since 2011 to 2016 have described. The main reasons why Perm’s Arbat didn’t become popular are determing: climate’s specifics, not profitable position in the city and transportation, infrastructure, which doesn’t suit citizens’ needs, the lack of individuality, which contributes to appeal and demand. At the end there is a conclusion, that Permskaya street could be popular pedestrian zone in a case of filling its existance of sense, uniqueness of an idea and a balanced approach of accepted decisions.
N.E. Zaynakayeva., V.I. Yamov
The article gives an analysis of the main ways of reconstruction of residential buildings. Reconstruction of buildings and structures is one of the most important problems of a developing city and its infrastructure. It helps to maintain the modern architectural appearance of the city, the high level of housing conditions and the level of comfort. The main thing in the reconstruction of the urban environment is the increase in the reliability and durability of buildings whose service life exceeded the initial estimated period of operation. Particular attention is paid to the main methods of reconstruction of serial residential buildings. Also types of the newest materials which allow to carry out repair of designs, increasing their service life in times are resulted. The following conclusions are drawn: reconstruction of apartment houses of the first mass series will make them morally and physically obsolete, into modern, highly comfortable buildings with good living conditions. The reason, slowing the reconstruction, is the lack of investment, and the foreign practice in the financial participation of residents practically does not take root in our conditions because of the social status of citizens with low incomes.
Y.D. Kazakova, M.E. Polovnikov, O.V. Petreneva
This article analyzes the statistics in the construction sector in the year 2016 Perm and the Perm region. These are used in the publication are collected by the territorial body of the Federal Statistics Service, in the period from 2012 to 2016. The analysis of the pace of housing construction both individual and large developers, property prices are determined at the end of the year. Statistics Presented city, on the main indicators assess areas in terms of population of the city of Perm. Presented by rating the reliability of builders. Presents trends in the development of construction in 2016, and demolished roads and landscaping problems and dilapidated housing.
Kuryakova N.B., Merkusheva M.A.
The article presents the urban situation in the area of the railway station Perm II. The object of research is the new bus station. The relevance is in the need to implement a master plan strategy. Specifically, there is the need to create the modern bus station that can become an impulse to the territory of the Perm railway station II development and logistics and improve the quality of transport services for the people arriving in the city. The aim of the work is to develop the concept of a new bus station building in the city of Perm. The paper analyses the initial data for the construction of a new bus station, the question of the building integration into surrounding building and landscape is considered both from a position of observance of standard requirements, and from the esthetic and composite point of view. It was described the process of creating the building shape in plan, volume and spatial parameters and its appearance.
L. V. Sosnovskikh, E. V. Nazarova
The timber multistorey construction in Russia lags far behind the developing world trends of this industry. The experience of wooden multistorey house-building in Russia and abroad is reviewed. The article presents the foreign experience of multistorey building construction using wooden constructions. The main causes of limiting wooden construction in Russia are analyzed. It describes the advantages of wooden buildings, and also some prospects for manufacturing wooden techniques, which allow to increase their strength and fire resistance. The study of Russian normative texts and the analysis of discussions held in the mass media make it possible to conclude that the restrictions on the implemention of multistorey wooden building construction in Russia are largely unfounded.
Designing of an air terminal complexes that has a requirement to accommodate people with disabilities
R.V. Nigmatullina, L.V. Sosnovskikh
The problem of providing a barrier-free environment has been paid much attention to people with disabilities in our country in recent years. Accepted design solutions in accordance with applicable regulations, provide access to limited mobility populations in public spaces. The article presents an example of the definition of space-planning decisions of the airport complex, designed in the city of Perm. Defined area of protective zones for people with disabilities, dimensions of escape routes, settings, control zones and zones of specialized services in accordance with the specified parameters of the functional process. The substantiation of the location of elevators, ramps, escalators, stairways, providing safe evacuation of people with disabilities, described the special equipment of premises. The activities proposed by the project contribute to the unhindered movement of people with disabilities over long distances. The technique for determining the parameters of the barrier-free environment described in the article can be used to develop other similar projects.
Analysis having a compare of fiberglass and metal for the device of bay of overhead pedestrian crossing
E.D. Osterman, O.A. Shutova, V.I. Kleveko
It is often necessary to overlap very large bays in the device a ground pedestrian crossing in the conditions of city building. Also It is needful to very carefully approach the choice of material and how to seek economic benefits, and to ease the process of installation. Thus, In order to choose any material to bay the pedestrian bridge, it is requisite to consider in detail and analyze a few options. This article have a analysis of possibility of applying the structures of metal and fiberglass for the device of footbridge bays with a length of 40 m. Object of research are the construction materials of bays pedestrian crossings. The aim of this work is to identify the most efficient material for the device bays with a length of 40 m. This article have the settlement scheme in the program "LIRA-SPAR", the calculation of the deformation, the calculation of strength and stability of elements, and local cost estimates. The analysis of materials have been did according to the criteria of economy and workability,and have been identified optimized option.
A.A. Shamarina, Y.A. Pavlova
As the title implies the article describes an example of integration of a modern building with a public library historic building and with a historic development of Perm. Much attention is given to facade design which has to cause visual interaction with the object of cultural heritage, and also has to conform to the requirements of heritage preservation. Recommendations are given on the development of the territory of the cultural heritage. The goal of the work is to add a new object to a historical development and determine its impact on the perception of the urban environment. The objectives include the development of recommendations for the preservation and development of the territory of the cultural heritage object; selection decisions of the facade design, that has to be visually connected with the cultural heritage object and the surrounding area; the analysis of the impact of the new building on the territory.
A. V. Парфиевич
Urban parks and green zones until recently received considerably less attention than the country natural areas with special status and protected areas. However, this attitude is changing rapidly, and parks in our ever-urbanizing world of green spaces and parks with different themes be of strategic importance. The importance of social, cultural and environmental problems determine the urgency of development issues associated with the trend of network development of parks districts and cities. Their characteristics, creating a comfortable and pleasant conditions. as well as issues of reconstruction of the historical, memorial, thematic, and natural forested areas . Modern urban parks of culture and rest required to enjoy a comfortable and aesthetically appealing to modern requirements of the recreational areas, with a fairly high level of maintenance and carry out the basic tasks: 1. Appeal to local cultural traditions and values; 2. The organization works year-round Park space, holding a variety of full leisure of local residents and guests from other regions; 3. Organization of safe recreation and the preservation of personal property; 4. Organization entertainment related and necessary for vital services.
O.N. Popovtseva, S.V. Maksimova
Landscape analysis is a special research that determines the space-planning decisions of new construction and reconstruction in a way they do not conflict with the existing buildings. The article studies the site of Popova Street between Lenina Street and Lunacharskogo Street. Analysis is based on initial data of the area and materials that obtained by making photos, measurements and observations. The object of research is a building of the shopping center Iceberg Modern, located at Popova Street, 22. The subject of the study is a composite and visual relationship between the object and surrounding urban area. The ultimate goal of the analysis is to develop recommendations for the visual solutions of Iceberg Modern building facade.
The rationale for energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of the construction of the buildings of the poultry farms with low power consumption in the Ural region
S. Yu. Pleshkov, S.A. Biryukova, Ju.O. Klimantova
This paper describes the project of modernization of thermal insulation of the buildings of the poultry farms located in the Sverdlovsk region, the organizational part of the integrated poultry farm "Sverdlovsk". We prove the advantage of this construction technique in the climatic conditions of the Ural region from the point of view of a substantial increase in thermal performance, energy efficiency and a significant reduction in heating costs compared to the existing variants of buildings, made according to standard techniques. Explains the profitability of the proposed project in the application of energy saving technologies in the region with a cold climate. The authors have calculated the reduced heat transfer resistance of individual walling proposed to use the buildings of the poultry farms for the climatic conditions of the Ural region in accordance with the requirements of the normative literature. The relevance of the study is emphasized by the announcement in Russia to 2017 – the year of the environment.
Analysis of methods of reconstruction or capital repair of underground parts of buildings of residential buildings of the mid-20th century in the city of Perm
A. A. Sokil, K.D.Karpinskiy
Despite the rapid pace of construction of new housing, the secondary continues to be the market is rapidly growing. The basis of the residential Fund of the city of Perm in the secondary market are homes built in the 50-70s. It is therefore necessary to focus on the physical deterioration of these houses, with the aim of increasing their service life. Often the reconstruction or repair is considering the restoration of the only above-ground structures of houses without affecting geotechnical problems. However, the solution of geotechnical problems with developing reliable measures for the preservation of the strength of reason, limiting the settlement to a permissible value, to avoid the development of deformations of buildings and, in the performance of preventive and repair work will contribute to the further reliable operation of system "base-Foundation-building". The paper discusses and analyzes technological solutions for capital repair and reconstruction of underground parts of buildings, the comparison of options to identify the most reliable and cost-effective in terms of the existing residential development Perm.
E.A. Tokareva, S.V. Maksimova Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation;
The article discusses the neighborhood "Red yard" occupies the territory of former military unit located in Brest, Belarus. The company "Saint-Gobain" held an international competition to develop the concept of this site. The proposal concept has a number of advantages, the major drawbacks are lack of green spaces, allowing you to create a full-fledged urban environment, does not take into account the recreational potential of the area and ensures the availability of the river for all residents of the planned residential district. One of the main ideas is preservation and development of existing green frame and the banks of the river Mukhavets. This strategy could help to developing territories with existing landscape. Riversides is planned to be transformed into a park with different parts connected by pedestrian paths. Each of this parts has own function: active and quiet recreation, children's playgrounds, sports facilities, amphitheater, BBQ facilities, car parking. The improvement of the coastal territory will create certain urban structure and improve quality of surrounding areas. The new park will be a center of attraction for people and an attractive target for the whole city. Rational use of the territory will prevent chaotic use of shore, will retain the green belt of the city, will reduce the damage to the environment in terms of active construction.
Строительная механика. Моделирование физических процессов строительства. Строительные конструкции зданий и сооружений
Babeshko E.S., Zakharova M.S., Karpinskiy K.D.
The article provides an overview of methods for artificially enhanced grounds stacked on soft water-saturated clay soils. The technology using an intermediate sand pits, soil piles, devices, sand drains, jet grouting of the soil. The article provides an overview of methods for vertical geotechnical barriers. The technology immersion metal pile, the device "wall in soil" technology, CFA piling, jet grouting of the soil. Estimated geological conditions of the use of technology.
Use of artificial intelligence systems for evaluation of certain technical condition of building constructions
UDK: 658.012.1: 624.01
Domnina A. O., Tonkov Y. L.
The object of study is defects and damage steel beams and columns. The purpose is analysis of information on the principles of the work of expert systems for evaluation of building constructions certain technical condition, the assignment of the main tools for the development of the knowledge base, input parameters definition of program for evaluation of certain technical condition of steel constructions. Analysis of certain technical condition of building constructions is difficult task even for experts. On this basis expert systems could be tools that facilitate the work of the surveyors. Advantage of this program is processing of a set of parameters taking into account their importance relative to each other and acceptance of construction conclusions. As a result of the work the basic principles of development a knowledge base are defined, and steel constructions parameters are extracted, according to which their technical condition will be determined.
Experience in determining the explosive load using modern software systems and calculation techniques
M.N. Kochepanova, V.D. Bosov
The actuality of the numerical modeling of the propagation of a blast wave in the air is noted, both in the design of buildings and structures of explosive industries, and in evaluating the consequences of explosions on building structures and predetermining the scale of destruction due to the high cost of full-scale tests. The author describes the difficulties that arise in modeling using modern foreign software products with a world-wide name. The results of simulation of an explosion in a certain calculation area are presented. Modeling was carried out using the AUTODYN module of the software complex Ansys Workbench. The main purpose of the paper is to study the shock-wave structure that arises from a detonation explosion using C4 from the materials library as an explosive. Numerical simulation was carried out under normal atmospheric conditions.
The progress of deformations in brick buildings with a decrease in the characteristics of the ground base
В.V. Tarasevich, D.A. Nuzhina
Most of the multi-apartment buildings of the Perm housing stock were built in 1940-1980s. In the exploitation of buildings, their technical condition changes, which is expressed in a quantitative change in the strength characteristics of load-bearing structures and the ground base. As a result, various types of damage appear in the bearing structures of the building. In the typical buildings of series 1-447, II-03 considered the main pronounced damage is through cracks in the outer brick walls. Causes of cracks could be caused by various factors, however, characteristic inclined cracks were recorded in most of the surveyed buildings of these series, which indicates a common cause for all such buildings. For a sufficiently long period of operation of such buildings, due to climatic and technogenic factors, significant changes in the characteristics of the ground base could occur. Reducing the characteristics of the base could lead to uneven foundation sediments in different parts of the building, depending on the location and degree of variation of some characteristics of the base.
Application of the Ansys Workbench software package to account for temperature deformations of damaged brick building walls
R.R.Sadykova, I.L. Tonkov
In the process of monitoring the technical condition of the external brick walls of the five-story building in Perm, made during the cold period of the year, it became necessary to take into account the change in the width of the opening of existing cracks due to air temperature fluctuations [1,2]. The main cause of the existing wall damage is the uneven deformation of the base in the first years of operation due to the insufficient bearing capacity of the soil . During the observations of the building, the width of the opening of existing cracks in the outer walls changed both in the larger and smaller directions. At the same time, the appearance of new cracks was not fixed, which cast doubt on the version of the negative effect of geological processes at the base of the foundations. To confirm the hypothesis of temperature deformations of walls, an accurate quantitative assessment of changes in the width of crack opening was required by computer simulation of the stressed state of walls due to air temperature fluctuations with subsequent comparison of results with monitoring data. In the software complex Ansys Workbench, the walls of the building are calculated for the temperature effects. Calculations confirmed that from the temperature drop in the brickwork of the walls of the surveyed building there are tensile stresses, the concentration of which coincides in localization with the actual trajectories of cracks. The calculated values of crack opening, obtained as a result of computer simulation, are very close to the actual values measured during monitoring.
V.V. Antipov, O.A. Shutova, V.G. Ofrikhter
Automobile traffic is one of the main sources of technogenic vibrational impact on nearby buildings and structures, along with construction works and manufacturing equipment. But now in Russia there is no standardization of the vibrational impact from vehicles, therefore research of such impact on the foundations is actual. The article describes the numerical modelling of the dynamic impact from a single vehicle on the existing building of the learning campus of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of PNRPU. Numerical simulation was carried out based on data obtained during the application of multichannel analysis of surface waves in the upper section of nearby sites. The results of numerical simulation are compared with the results of a full-scale experiment of determination of vertical and horizontal components of vibration acceleration from a single vehicle.
Pile-slab foundations are used in construction to transfer large loads from buildings and structures to the ground. The separation of the foundation slab and piles with a ground cushion allows solving the problem of redistribution of forces between piles and ground, reducing the effect of seismic forces on piles. Simulation of the pile-foundation foundation with a soil cushion was carried out in a laboratory tray with natural soils - loam of broken structure and sand. Used reduced models of piles, slabs and soil cushions. The sediments of the soil cushion, its reaction to the base of the slab, external force were measured. Photoregistration of work of the model of the base was made through the transparent wall of the tray. The soil cushion sediment values and reactive forces on the bottom of the slab were obtained, the force applied to the foundation model, and its total sediment were also measured.
Solving test problems for carrying out a numerical experiment evaluating the mutual influence of two energy-efficient piles
Bakieva I.D., Zaharov A.V.
In this article, studies are given of the relationship between the interference of two energy-efficient piles during the selection of low-potential heat from a soil massif from the distance between piles and their geometric parameters. The article presents the results of a numerical experiment planning. Selected plan identifies the main factors, the number of levels, and varying boundaries. With the purpose of obtaining the required dependence, the experimental planning matrix is compiled. A two-factor three-level numerical experiment is planned. As the input parameters of the numerical experiment, the radius of the piles and the distance between them are assumed. As an output parameter – the average value of the heat flux density through the contact surface of piles with soil during the heating period. A numerical experiment is planned to be carried out in the GeoStudio software package. Climatic, geological, time parameters (duration of the heating season) were taken for the conditions of the Perm region. In the article the basic positions on modeling in a program complex GeoStudio module TEMP/W are resulted. For the selection of time and geometric parameters of numerical simulation, the solution of the test problem is given. Time parameters were evaluated by comparing the magnitude of the heat flux during the heating season for a number of years of energy-efficient pile. According to the results it found that the duration of the simulation must be at least 10 years. Geometric parameters of the numerical model were selected by estimating the change in the temperature regime of the soil massif during the operation of an energy efficient pile for several years. According to the results it is established that the size of the numerical model should be at least 50x50 m for the given conditions.
А.I. Vayngolts, S.A. Kalinovsky, E.A. Kachalkina, О.A. Fomkina
This paper utilizes finite element analysis to study stresses under ring footings resting on two-layered soils. The upper layer differs from the underneath layer in values of the deformation modules. The objective of this research is analysis of the effects of two factors: stiffness ratio and the upper layer depth. The ring footing is numerically modelled as strip load. It is found that the stresses decrease as the value of stiffness ratio increases. But the stiffness ratio effect decreases as the upper layer depth increases. Also, there is a limit value of stiffness ratio for each the upper layer depth. When this ratio exceeds a limit value the effect of stiffness ratio to stresses is insignificant.
E.O. Erzhakovskiy, D.N. Sursanov
The purpose of this article is to study technologies related to the installation of pile foundations. The article describes the main technologies and directions for the development of methods for pilling. The review of patents on this topic is given. Positive and negative sides of the static indentation method are indicated on the example of the VS-6 VDU piling press. A technique for performing a feasibility study based on generally accepted formulas and relationships has been developed. The calculation and comparative analysis of technical and economic parameters of machines for pilling are made. The dependences of the effectiveness of the static stump method are determined. The conditions under which it is recommended to arrange pile foundations by this method are determined.
Selection of load-lifting equipment and determination of the depth of anchoring of the base with the device of a regulated foundation
A.D. Kazakov, E.N. Sychkina
This article is devoted to the problem of eliminating uneven building sludge with the help of regulated foundations. The article is an overview of the problem of selecting lifting equipment and determining the depth of anchoring of the base when constructing a controlled foundation in the conditions of Perm. The authors solve the following problems: 1) selection of the most optimal lifting equipment; 2) depth of fixing the base. To achieve these tasks, the authors encounter such issues as: 1) collecting loads from the object under study; 2) selection of jacks and pumping station; 3) determination of the depth of the core. Much attention is paid to the selection of lifting equipment, since the hydraulic jack and pump station should work as a single part of the adjustable foundation, as well as a technical and economic comparison of different models.
Bearing capacity of soil foundations subject to metro facilities (for example, the ventilation tunnel)
The increasing density of urban development, along with active development of underground space, leads to the need for a detailed accounting of the mutual influence of foundations of existing (designed) structures with slightly deepened underground facilities for various purposes. Mainly, it is important to consider the impact of underground structures on the bearing capacity of the Foundation soil. For this purpose, the author used methods of the theory of limit equilibrium of soils. The solution of the problem under consideration is shown by the example of the influence of the ventilation tunnel of the subway on the bearing capacity of the Foundation soil. In the course of the research the regularities of changes in bearing capacity of Foundation depending on soil characteristics, location of the tunnel and its size. For the effective solution of the problem considered, the design of the specific sites proposed apparatus "lines of influence". The article presents practical guidelines for determining limit loads on the Foundation structure. Special attention is paid to verification used for the numerical calculations of bearing capacity of Foundation software package. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plots of the limit pressure at the base of the Foundation proves the necessity of considering whether the base of the underground facilities.
Technique of conducting an experiment to determine the dependence of the strength characteristics of sandy soils on temperature
A.Y. Kolechkina, A.V. Zakharov
The technique of carrying out the experiment to determine the dependence of the strength characteristics of sandy soils on temperature is considered in the article. The physical characteristics of the investigated soil are determined - moisture, particle size distribution and particle density. The boundary conditions of humidity for soil samples were found. Strength characteristics of the soil were determined with the help of ASIS systems. The sequence of sample formation is considered - setting the sample to moisture, sealing it, forming, cooling and testing in a single-plane cutter. Cooling was carried out to temperatures of t2 ° C and 12 ° C, the remaining samples were tested at room temperature (about 22 ° C). The article contains illustrations with a sequence of carrying out this experiment. In the course of the experiment, the temperature of the samples was measured two times - before testing in a single-plane cutter and after. All the obtained values of the specific cohesion, the angle of internal friction and temperature are tabulated.
Monitoring of the geotechnical situation at the construction of the underground part of high-rise residential building
Ya.A. Kuznetsova, K.S. Lezina
For the construction of tall buildings requires reliable forecasts of the additional deformation, a possible precipitate of the existing development in the "zone of influence". Without a complete geotechnical complex, complex urban renewal turns into a dangerous and destructive activity. The article presents the main stages of forecasting of development of the geotechnical situation.
Analysis of deformation characteristics of the foundation in the construction of high-rise buildings
K.S. Lezina, Ya.A.Kuznetsova
In the construction of high-rise buildings with a developed underground part of the main task is the evaluation of building properties, foundations for the entire life of the structure. Evaluate the possibility of using soft water-saturated clayey soils for use as grounds and the forecast of change of their physical-mechanical characteristics.
MiroshinA.N., VajnshtejnV.M., MoskvinaO.S.
The article is devoted to the designs of shallow foundations, which are widely used in domestic and foreign building practice. The problem of finding an optimal design of shallow foundations always pressing, especially in low-rise construction. Defined constructive solutions to shallow foundations for homogeneous geological stratification of soil. Detailed and designed constructive selected foundations and magnitude of sediment foundations that meet all regulatory requirements. Calculated quantities of work and materials for each constructive version of the foundation. The estimated cost is defined for each version of the foundation. On the basis of this conclusion on the optimally foundation for this homogeneous geological formation of soils. This article is intended for specialists in the field of industrial and civil construction engineers and designers, students and postgraduates.
E.V. Ruchkina, E.G. Frolova
Sealing of the sand base under the influence of the load from the foundation occurs unevenly in space and in time. This is expressed in the uneven settlement of the base as the load increases with a constant speed. The basement foundation settlement is an integral reaction to the loading, to which the processes of deformation of the sandy soil below the basement base are affected in a complex manner. Physical modeling showed that the greatest compaction occurs directly in the area beneath the base of the foundation in the upper layer of the ground. Under loading, compression ratio is lower, but these changes are distributed more evenly along the depth.
A.V. Spirin, A.S. Grishina
At the present time it's necessary to modernize existing buildings. The purpose of this article is review and comparison of reinforcing technologies of foundations during building reconstruction. Superstructure of existing buildings often causes the need to expand the foundation base or reinforce the soil base. The article presented modern technologies of reinforcing of foundation on clay soils that are common in Perm. Described methods main features, advantages and disadvantages are examined. As an example calculation of additional vertical deformations of foundation of the existing secondary school building in Perm for various reinforcing methods of its foundations in PLAXIS software package is produced. The results of the technical and economic comparison of the various reinforcing methods are presented. Equal effectiveness of foundation base expansion, use of injection piles and the electrochemical anchoring of the ground base is demonstrated.
A.A. Timshina, E.N. Sychkina
The article is dedicated to the calculation of slope stability by numerical methods. In particular the authors analyzed four variants of the situation. The purpose of the work is to identify the factors that have had the most negative impact on the slope and to determine the feasibility of using various methods to anchoring of soil. Besides the authors identified the convergence of the results obtained by numerical and analytical methods. In the article is offered recommendations to address the emergency. In the future, calculations by other numerical methods of variants with various combinations of measures to secure the slope and the choice of the most
UDK: УДК 693.69
The object of research of this article is a new material of finish facades of buildings – facade wallhangings. This material is mainly used in individual and low rise construction. In our country, the use of technology facade wallhangings has not yet received wide spread, so the purpose of the research is detection the positive and negative aspects of use this technology and description of front wallpaper installation technology. In the article the physical and mechanical properties of the facade wallhangings were determined, the analysis of these properties and also comparison facade wallhangings with competitive materials were carry out. The results of the article showed that device technology outside finish of the building using facade wallhangings has significant advantages over its main competitor - plaster, these advantages are plasticity, whereby the cracks not form on the facades of buildings while their settlement, and great resistance to high temperature drops.
UDK: УДК 69.05
The technology of stripping of buildings by method of explosion of load-bearing frames and "cut and take down" technology is considered in this article. Comparison of these methods of demolition of buildings and structures is carried out by analyzing such factors as safety, environmental friendliness, speed and economy. The main advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are listed. The technology of directional explosion is urgent for quickly demolition of buildings and constructions with minimum financial investments, and the "cut and take down" method for safe work in a dense urban environment with minimal impact on the environment. Also relevance of technologies is caused by body height of high-floor construction and increase in number of old buildings which need stripping. As a result, conclusions were drawn about the scope of these methods of dismantling buildings.
UDK: УДК 624.152.634
E.V. Kuznecov, E.N. Sychkina
This article discusses the use of jet grouting technology in a dense housing. It speaks of the beginning of development of this technology. The advantages among their peers, opportunities in the cramped conditions of works, and also refers to the disadvantages of this technology. It describes the facilities of the city of Perm, with the use of jet grouting technology. Available photos using fences pit in the form of jet-grouting of the tongue at the construction of a multifunctional complex «Green Plaza». There is a description of the principle of works for Jet-1 Technology, Jet-2, Jet-3. It describes the operation of the production technology at the construction site, starting with the installation of the drilling tool design position, ending on washing equipment. Presented production work scheme using the rig, with a description of the sequence of the work. Also it refers to the use of Jet grouting under different conditions, and the possibilities of modern technology.
UDK: УДК 624.012.3/.4
The object of research is the concrete mix and its sealing technology. The urgency of the problem is due to the tendency of a monolithic construction. The purpose of this article - the study of the basic methods of compaction of the concrete mix. The article describes the basic properties and characteristics of the concrete mix, a primary form of its seal. It representes the underlying mechanism - a vibrator, dismantles its principle of operation, scope and location. The article also contains a mixture of smoothing technology, given its basic equipment and when they are applied.
UDK: УДК 691.554
This article reflects the technology of applying the finishing of walls liquid wallpaper used in the decoration works, told ecological modern coatings, justified the use of finishing materials, contributing to the development of aesthetic, safety and performance properties for different types of buildings and structures, shows the basic tools and the necessary tools for the application of wallpaper showing the advantages and disadvantages of this coating, giving a complete picture of finishing materials, we used the following methods to analyze in detail the topic of this article: qualitative analysis, induction, synthesis. The paper studies the efficiency of the use of liquid wallpaper in the construction of residential houses and public buildings.
UDK: УДК 69.003
A.A. Zaitsev, A.Е. Petrov, О.V. Petreneva
Concrete structures are one of the basic materials in construction. Together with the concrete is usually used metal armature. But the steel reinforcement has a number of shortcomings and high cost. New materials, such as composite rebar, appear on the trading floor and remove the shortcomings, as well as reduce the cost of construction. This article describes a polymer reinforcement. Also, the basic properties of composite and metal fittings. Compiled table diameters of compliance with full-strength replacement. This is complemented by a comparative analysis of the characteristics of valves, namely by comparing two kinds of cores for tensile strength, elastic modulus, density, diameter, length, corrosion resistance, cost, thermal conductivity, and the convenience of shipping and installation. Also, are the main advantages and disadvantages of composite reinforcement. On this basis, indicated the main lines of the new building material. For example, the foundation slab, measuring 10 by 10 meters, is considered justification for the use of composite reinforcement with economic and engineering viewpoints.
UDK: УДК 629.113
V.S. Ponomarev, V.S. Efimova, S.I. Vakhrushev
The article describes the main types of steel wire ropes, their structure, the materials which they are made of and modern ways to increase their operating characteristics. There are also explores the forces occurring in a double lay rope with organic core, produced the selection of the rope based on forces acting on the polyspast. Taking into account the structure of the steel rope, is calculated the maximum equivalent tension in it, and this value is compared with the maximum allowable tension value in accordance with the labeling group of rope. The calculation scheme of the rope is a rod (the core) working on tension, and a spring (strands) working on torsion, bend and shear, the axes of which is coincide with the axis of the rod. We made calculations with different values of the applied load and came to the conclusion that in the rope occur tensions longer than tensions given in the GOSTs. Therefore it is necessary to increase the strength of the rope without changing the diameter of its strands in order that the rope does not lose its flexibility. It is one of the main directions in the study of the ropes nowadays.
UDK: УДК 698.3
The subject of the article is glass structures of floors and staircases of residential and public premises. The purpose of this study is to study the basic stages of installing floors from three-layer glass panels, to study the basic provisions on the installation of glass stairs, to learn what Triplex and its properties are. Different types of glass floors, their characteristics features are disassembled. It is established that laminated glass, being a fragile material, has properties that are not interior in strength characteristics to metal and concrete structures. Due to its qualities, glass can now be used not only in openings, but also serve as floors, stairs and overlapping, with standing significant loads. Installation of such structures does not cause great difficulties, and triplex is a popular material and a t present it is produced in all major cities of Russia.
UDK: УДК 004.356.2
M. N. Svirskiy
Object of a research is – 3D technologies in a construction. The research purpose consists in the analysis of opportunities of application 3D - technologies in a construction. Relevance of a construction by means of 3D - technologies is caused by the low cost of housing, safety of production, and also speed of construction of houses. Use 3D - technologies gives the chance to build buildings practically of any form. During the analysis processes of construction of houses by means of 3D - seals are considered. Various benefits and defects of application 3D - technologies are revealed and stated. The possibilities of a seal of various designs are also considered by the 3D-printer. The analysis of the software which is used for 3D - modeling and directly control of the printer is made. In article the construction materials used for production of the bearing structures of houses by 3D technology - seals are considered. Reasons for cost efficiency of application 3D - technologies are given. The forecast of development 3D - technologies is made.
UDK: УДК 692.41
A.V. Semenov, V.S. Ivashkin, O.V. Petreneva
The new type of a roofing covering and its feature is considered. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of cool roofs for the city and for individual residential buildings are considered. Comparison of the cities of the United States of America and the Russian Federation on sunshine duration and average temperature in a year is carried out. The efficiency evaluation of application of cool roofs for the city of Krasnodar, by means of such coefficients as: R-value, solar reflectance, infrared emittance is provided. Quotations on creation of a cool roof on the basis of the existing roof with different types of surfaces are considered. The concept of "A winter penalty" and his influence on the choice of roofing material for the cities of Russia is considered.
UDK: УДК 624.154.5
E.S. Sudnitsyna, S.I. Vakhrushev
The article aims at searching new structural and engineering ways to improve the efficiency of pile pressing. The study object is presented by machines and pile pressing units. The study subject is supposed to be the efficiency of pile pressing equipment and the ways to improve it. At present this problem is considered to be one of the most important and urgent issues when constructing and reconstructing foundations. Constant complication of both forms and building parts of modern structures increases the requirements to their basements and foundations to a great extent. According to the building experience, it is the foundation construction field that has the biggest potential to increase the construction efficiency and quality. Moreover, the significance of this problem is explained by a growing volume of works connected with the reconstruction of old buildings and structures, as well as industrial enterprises where a high level of dynamic and noise effects is not acceptable. The application of the existing equipment is restrained due to its structural elements imperfection and insufficient process development of industrial piles installation. Investigating and justifying of pile pressing rational technologies with the help of new equipment make the following article rather urgent. The authors provide a review and a detailed analysis of some methods and ways to increase the performance of pile pressing units. In particular, there are considered methods based on executing special technologies according to a certain sequence of sheet piling operations, as well as ways to increase the machines performance with the help of additional equipment. Special attention is paid to mechanisms comprising different anchoring systems and extra counterweight. The authors give some examples of pile pressing units that meet the requirements of high productivity, speed and efficiency under different soil and climate conditions and can be used during pile-driving works on construction sites. The pile pressing equipment structure, its operation principles and fields of application are described in the course of this study. The conclusions on the development prospects of pile pressing machines and increasing pile pressing efficiency are made. The study also reveals the most perspective systems and methods that meet the requirements of modern construction technologies.
Experience in optimization of constriction machines complex by Dijkstra method on Perm city contraction site
UDK: УДК 69.003.13
S.I. Vakhrushev, E.O. Trenogin
The article gives the calculation of the optimal set of construction machines at the earthworks stage. As an input data used a schedule of earthmoving calculated during the designing of a project for the construction. As well as a set of works on the planning of the territory, temporary roads, removal of surplus earth masses from the construction site, cutting an underburden in the foundation pit, backfilling of the sinuses of the foundation, compaction of backfill soil with a vibratory plate. Object of research is residential complex under construction located in Perm city. In article author demonstrate the use of the method of calculating of optimal contraction machines complex based on Dijkstra method based on the technical and economic indicators obtained in the calculation. The adjusted cost per 1m3 developed soil chosen as the optimization criterion.
T.V. Gudz, A.A. Pikalova
Modern development in urban areas of individual residential development in Russia shows insufficient regulation by the town planning regulations. Balanced development, as a rule, is justified by the initiative of customers or by a successful project solution. The established limit parameters do not form the development of territories, which subsequently adversely affects the aesthetics of development and urban interior, hinders the improvement and maintenance of territories and often puts landowners in unequal conditions. The envisaged parameters of permitted construction do not reflect an integrated approach to the formation of buildings in different urban areas. The purpose of the study is to identify planning methods that affect the development of territories, and to develop approaches that allow for the targeted regulation of building parameters. The article presents an overview of the existing limiting parameters of permitted construction using the example of individual Russian cities. The performed work shows the need to improve the established limit parameters of permitted construction for low-rise residential development.
Current state and development of internal water supply and sewerage systems of cultural heritage sites in the city of Perm on the example of a building along Lenin Street, 56
I. V. Vagina, A.A. Rzaeva
The object of the study is the internal water supply and internal sewerage in the cultural heritage building of Perm on Lenin street, 56. The purpose of the study is to create axonometric schemes of cold utility water supply B1 and domestic sewerage K1 and K1-H1. And also to identify the design features of internal water supply and sewerage in such buildings. During the research, measurements were made of water mains, sewerage, pipe diameters and analysis of the obtained axonometric schemes. The result of the study showed features, complexity and not a standard approach to the design of in-house water supply and sanitation in an existing building.
USE OF THE WASTE COFFEE WASTAGE AS GETTER MATERIAL FOR PURIFICATION OF THE PRODUCTION SEWAGE OF IONS OF HEAVY METALS AND OIL PRODUCTS
D.V. Klemeshov, M.S. Novikov
The method of application of a waste coffee thick in purification of the production sewage polluted by oil products and ions of heavy metals is considered in article. Results of laboratory researches on definition of effectiveness of purification of model sewage with a getter method are given. Getter water treatment by a waste coffee thick is perspective technology of cleaning which can serve for removal from the trade waste effluent both ions of heavy metals, and oil products. Theoretical justifications of results of a research are given. Conclusions are drawn on opportunities of further modifying and use of this getter material.
UDK: Systems of gas supply optimization
The object of the study is the existing system of gas supply. The purpose of the work is to search for options for optimizing gas supply systems in terms of structure, materials used, the degree of mechanization of work and the equipment used. In the process of work, the scientific literature on this topic was analyzed and the material characteristics of gas networks of low and medium pressure were calculated. As a result of the study, the appropriate conclusions were drawn: for the gasification of the residential quarter, it is economically more expedient to use a single-stage medium-pressure system with the introduction of house gas control systems. The design of inter-settlement gas supply systems should be carried out with due regard for the proper economic justification. It is recommended to provide all options for connection to the existing network and compare construction costs. Polyethylene gas pipelines are widely used as an alternative to steel underground pipelines.
A.A. Nechaeva, A.I. Burkov, G.S. Mishneva
This article considers 2 options for providing a microclimate in the conference hall of a public building with the use of a high-efficiency climate beam and a multi-split system. The designed system must meet the requirements of an energy efficient building, providing flexible use of available space and comfortable climate parameters. When designing, options are considered that take into account the productivity, investment value and operating costs in each case. Air conditioning systems that work with climate beams, as an alternative to traditional air conditioning systems, have been used extensively in Europe and North America since the 1990s. They make it possible to provide thermal comfort, low sound pressure level, energy saving and efficient use of space in buildings of various types. The cooling systems under consideration allow to control a comfortable climate in each room, managing the comfort modules for cold or warm air as needed. The brief review and operation principle of SWEGON cooling beams and multi-split systems of DAIKIN Company is presented. Calculations have been performed to identify an economically viable option.
Investigation of the process of heat exchange of the vapor phase of the propane-butane mixture with the surrounding ground massif in the underground reservoir, taking into account its exploitation
N.N. Osipova, I.M. Bychkova, A.A.Poberiy
In the article the paper presents the results of studies of heat exchange between the vapor phase of a mixture of propane-butane located above the mirror of evaporation in an underground reservoir of liquefied hydrocarbon gas and the surrounding ground massif. The criteria influencing the heat exchange process are established, the values of the heat transfer coefficient from the massif of ground to the vapor phase and the magnitude of the heat inflow to the vapor phase of the propane-butane mixture are determined depending on the changing physical properties of the liquid and vapor phases of the liquefied hydrocarbon gas and the temperature operating conditions. On the basis of research it was established that as a result of the heat exchange of the vapor phase of the propane-butane mixture with the surrounding ground, the superheating of the vapor phase will be from 1,94 0C to 13,3 0C.
This article defines the root causes of the development corrosion of steel underground pipelines. In addition, the article presents types of soil corrosion and corrosive properties of tap water. Special attention is given to the study and comparison of different methods of fight against corrosion. Every method described affects to protect the internal/external surface of steel pipelines in its own way due to use of special reagent and their physical properties.
Methodology for determining the level of professional competence of bachelors in the field of construction
E. M. Zhartayev, L.I. Mironova
The article examines the competence of bachelors in the field of construction, regulated by the Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education (FSES HE). A tiered approach is proposed to assess their formation (low, medium, basic, high). The essence of each of the levels is presented. Using the example of research and design activities of the future bachelor-builder, the application of the well-known mathematical method for standardizing ranks is considered, which allows obtaining numerical intervals for assessing the level of professional competence in the professional field in question. The proposed approach can be applied to production and technological and production-management activities, experimental research activities, installation, commissioning and service-operational activities; bisnes activity, regulated by FSES HE in the direction of construction. Practical application of the developed methodology assumes the automation of the process of assessing the level of the formation of professional competence in a particular field of activity through implementation in the form of an interactive software module and the development of special educational, methodological and control materials that demonstrate the future bachelor-builder the availability of practical experience in the investigated fields of activity.
This article is about risk event which is in the basis of construction operations. In the article the author describes several methods that are most interesting and suitable for modification, in his opinion, developed and used both in Russian and foreign practice. These methods have affected such areas as construction, housing and utilities, energy and public procurement. For analysis, all methods are summarized by the author in the general table, a rating of frequency of occurrence of those or other criteria is made. The review of methods for assessing the risks of contractors showed that the overall criterion for all methods, as expected, was the cost of work or the "price of the contractor", in addition, the qualifications, reputation, material and technical base of the contractor, the duration and quality of work, etc. were taken into account. Work in the modification of the most appropriate, in the author's view, the method is expected to use such criteria as the customer's experience with the contractor, as well as the labor intensity of the project.
UDK: 69.003+ 519.814+ 330.16
A.O. Alekseev, K.S. Koskova, A.A. Kharitonova,
Technology of conceptual design of residential properties is suggested. The concept of the property defines a set of properties that should be possessed by property, e.g., location, infrastructure, engineering equipment, decoration, layout, etc. Are methods of modeling consumer preferences, allowing to form the shape of the future building, satisfying most of the needs and desires of the real estate market.
This article describes risk event, obtained by efficient methods for the selection of contractor, a set of convolution matrices which describes the importance of the considered factors. It is a proposition of decision tree and the system estimation of complex estimation of contractors, availability of construction equipment and facilities for the production of the materials, components and structures, qualifications of the personnel of materials; the complexity and duration of the project, as well as experience with the contractor. The following is an excerpt of the questionnaire to define construction of the matrix convolution. The questionnaire is designed so that the survey can participate, respondents who are not familiar with the methods and tools for integrated assessment.
Studying foreign experience is impossible without the use of an estimate and regulatory framework. It is necessary to constantly improve the pricing system of Russia for its further development, improvement and normalization of the system. The basis of estimated prices in Russia is an estimate and regulatory framework, the main structural element of which is the estimated norm. The article compares the pricing systems of Russia and Europe with the example of Germany, the United States and China, reveals the main advantages and disadvantages of the Russian pricing system. The pricing system is one of the main components of the management accounting system. Such a system not only establishes prices for construction products, goods, services, works, but also controls the process of creating and improving regulations regulating the price in various situations. Therefore, the development of the pricing system should be accompanied by a thorough study of foreign innovations.
UDK: УДК 624.131.43
A.V. Anukhina, M.V. Fedorov, V.V. Seredin, I.I. Minkevich
When rocks are loaded, stress concentration appears around defects leading to growth and spread of fractures. Hypothesized, that the destruction of rocks takes place in two stages: initially formed backbone fracture gap, then the rock is a shift for this crack. Depending on the stresses applied to the ground in the fracture zone, microdeformation processes take place between the structural segregations, a certain morphology of the crack surface is formed, sand of friction appears, the temperature of the material changes, which leads to a change in the phase state of the soil. Under these conditions, the water content of the clays must vary depending on the pressures applied to the ground. However, experimental information on this issue is not enough. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the regularities of the change in the content (mass) of water in clays, depending on the pressures exerted on the clay sample. It was experimentally established that the content of loosely bound and firmly bound forms of water, as well as of hydroxyl groups and the mass of recrystallization of minerals, is controlled not only by the composition, structure and properties of the crystal lattice of montmorillonite and kaolinite clay, but also by the amount of pressures to which the soil sample was subjected. With increasing pressure, the loss of mass of firmly bound water increases. For loosely bound water, the relationship between pressure and mass loss could not be established. It was found that the total loss of water mass with increasing stresses in kaolinite clay is less (m = 13.2%) than in montmorillonite clay (m = 16.9%).
UDK: УДК 624.131.43
Sh.Kh. Gainanov, A.V. Kozminykh, A.V. Trusova
The object of investigation is the soil strength of the Upper Permian redstone formation. The aim of the study is to classify sand and clay rocks of the formation and to reveal the regularities of formation of soil strength. A detailed study of the structure of the rocks was carried out in the rock sections that were selected in the rock basses of the Kama basin and its confluents. To assess the effect of the rock structure on the soil strength were determined that physical and mechanical properties, such as density, poriness, softening, water permeability and unconfined compressive strength. The classification of sand and clay rocks of the redstone formation was based on structural and texture features, which are determined by the facies environment. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the properties of sandstones are affected by the type of cementitious agent, and the properties of clays determine their texture. The resulting classification makes it possible to correctly compare the rocks of one lithological composition.
UDK: УДК 624.131.43
I.А. Zvereva, V.I. Kachenov
The article presents data on the swelling of clay soils of kaolinite and montmorillonite compositions, depending on the concentration of brine (15%, 30%, 35%). The nature of swelling of clays is associated with the formation of loosely bound water in the diffuse layer of the colloid micelle. As a result of the swelling in the 30% brine solution, the diffusion layer has the maximum power, the cations from the solution compensate for all colloid charges, hence the swelling value is of the greatest importance. In kaolinite clay, the increase in the concentration of the salt (C) solution occurs uniformly in time (t), in montmorillonite clay, the time (t) of the formation of the maximum value of the swelling strain decreases with increasing concentration of the salt (C) solution. Taking into account the mineral and granulometric composition of clays, the swelling deformation in Lobanovsky montmorillonite is less than in kaolinites.
UDK: УДК 624.131.41
V.V. Seredin, A.A. Kashevarova
montmorillonite and kaolinite clays were the object of the study. The aim of this work is to study the effect of pressure on the adsorption properties of clays. The methodology and results of the studies include: preparation of clay samples, compression under pressure, granulometric, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analyzes, and experimental data processing. The study found that changes in the sorption activity of kaolinite and montmorillonite clays occur due to a change in the structure of clay particles, the crystal lattice of minerals, and the formation of additional active centers on their surfaces. When the clay is compressed, on the one hand, the processes of coarsening of clay particles proceed, which should lead to a decrease in sorption capacity. On the other hand, as the pressure increases, the structure of clay particles changes, which contributes to the formation of additional active centers on the surface of the crystal and colloid, which leads to an increase in the sorption capacity of clays and, as a consequence, to an increase in the loss of bound water masses.
UDK: УДК 624.131.43
D.S. Lbova, V.I. Kachenov
in article the data on swelling kaolinite clay depending on the initial densities and different pH values. The development of industrial production, including the development of new oil fields, leads to the increase of technogenic load on the natural environment. Waste stored at the earth's surface (waste dumps, slurry pits, regulated discharges) have a negative impact not only human health, but also alter the properties of soils as foundations of structures, which leads to emergency situations on the objects of industrial infrastructure . The study of properties of soils exposed to technogenic impact engaged Sergeev E. M , Trofimov V. T., Korolev V. And , Seredin V. V., V. I. Kochenov, Sitawa O. s [4,5,6]. Therefore the aim of this work is to study the effect of pH of pore fluid on the swelling deformation of a kaolinite clay. The object of study – clay kaolinite composition.
The influence of tectonic fracturing of local structures on the physico-mechanical properties of soils
UDK: УДК 624.154.5
K.V. Lokteev, Sh.H. Gaynanov
This paper focuses on the influence of tectonic fractures on the physico-mechanical properties of soils on the example of Opalikhinskaya and Perm local structures. The submissions by the differences of properties in the fractured zones and in whole areas of the structure. The method of allocation of cracks in local structures.
UDK: УДК 624.131.43
A.S. Matsievskij, V.V. Seridin
Presents the results of experimental determination of capacity characteristics of sand of various granulometric composition with their contamination with motor oil "LUKOIL Moto 2T". It was established experimentally that the filtration of oil on the thickness of the sand affected the capacity of the layer of capillary-suspended moisture for coarse sand, the capacity of the capillary layer has decreased by 10 cm, average 15 cm, 20 cm for small It is revealed that the capillary moisture content has a significant resistance oil filtration motor section is thicker and the dirt can be a “masloprom” thus preventing the underlying strata and groundwater from hydrocarbon pollution. Found that the engine oil in the section of soil column is distributed evenly to the level of capillary hanging water, in front of which, there is a process of its accumulation. In the rough Sands of the oil content on the “masloprom” is mm=4,28% (with an average of 2.86%) in the major mm=3,97% (with an average of 3.23%) in medium size mm=7,73% (average of 2.26%) and minor mm=10,44% (with an average of 2.81%).
M.V. Fedorov, A.V. Anukhina, V.V. Seredin, I.V. Lunegov
Strength of the soil and the nature of its deformation depends on the strength of the structural links between the particles, grains and aggregates in the soil. Despite detailed studies of clays, the question of evaluating the forces of electrostatic interaction between clay colloids has not been studied sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of the work is to evaluate the adhesion forces on the surface of colloids of kaolinite clay upon its compression. Pre-prepared samples of kaolinite clay were studied on an atomic force microscope in fields of view from 50x50 to 1x1 mkm. As a result of the work, the dependence of the change in adhesion forces of kaolinite clay on the degree of its compaction. The statistical relationships between these indices have been revealed, which allow predicting the adhesion force on the surface of colloids and the material of the binding colloids depending on the compression force of kaolinite clay.
Development of the composition and method of production of gypsum binder on the basis of screenings of crushing
Anferov E.P., Pirozhkov N.A., Cherepanov
The article presents the results of the results of the development of the composition and method of production of low-grade gypsum binder on the basis of screenings of crushing. The researchers conducted experiments to determine the physical properties of the gypsum binder by the corresponding regulatory documents. The general technique of the laboratory production knitting is determined. It is received plaster knitting various quality. Comparison of characteristics plaster knitting from different tests is carried out. Comparison of characteristics plaster knitting with three different modes of cooking is carried out. Requirements to low-branded plaster knitting are revealed.During an experiment it is revealed that the most difficult achievable requirement is the brand on durability on compression, and also terms of a setting and curing. According to requirements, the analysis of possible production of the plaster screenings crushing knitting on the basis of eliminations is carried out. Urgent scopes of eliminations of screenings crushing are revealed.
E.A. Ashpalatova, A.A. Spiridonova, V.M. Sultanova
The use of complex modifiers based on polycarboxylate plasticizers and carbon nanotubes is becoming acquires wide popularity in modern materials science. This article presents the effect of complex additives on the rheological characteristics of the cement test and on the physico-mechanical characteristics of building composite materials. So, with the constant appearance of new types of hyperplasticizing additives, work is underway to create new studies to assess their effect on the quality of cement composites for the preparation of higher-quality and high-strength composite materials based on cement binders. It was found that the introduction of DS-5 hyperplasticizers on the basis of polycarboxylate esters significantly reduces consumption of mixing water and cement when introduced into the formulation in small amounts. Using of carbon nanotubes in the hyperplasticizer improves the plasticizing properties and improves the mechanical characteristics of the cement astringent. Also, the incomplete dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the carboxylate environment and the mixed sorting in the structure of the cement matrix reduce their effectiveness.
D.I. Baranyuk, V.A. Shamanov
The article deals with the problems of increasing the strength and water resistance of gypsum by using aluminum-containing waste. In the framework of the experiment, a comparison was made of the physico-mechanical characteristics of samples with different amounts of waste with Al2O3 content with the results of testing the control samples. The comparison was based on various parameters of the quality of the gypsum binder: water-gypsum ratio (В/Г), compression breaking strength and compressive strength in bending (Rсж и Rизг), mass specific gravity (ср), water absorption by mass (Wm) and softening coefficient (Kp) ). According to the results of the study, it was found that adding a waste with Al2O3 content to the gypsum mixture helps to increase physical and chemical parameters, such as compression breaking strength, compressive strength in bending and mass specific gravity. Such changes in quality indicators can be related to the compaction of gypsum stone structure, as well as to a possible change in the morphology of gypsum crystals and an increase in the degree of their crystallization. In the course of the experiment it was found that the compositions containing alumina-containing waste should be used only in air-dry conditions, providing additional measures to protect the products from moisture, for example, surface treatment with hydrophobic liquids.
The use of a concrete mixture based on microsilica and boron carbide for the erection of monolithic structures exposed to fire
D.I. Voloshin, V.I. Yamov
As the result of the fires there can be partial or total destruction of the monolithic constructions. The general state of the construction, the ability of its further exploitation and the method of its strengthening can be estimated due to the temperature in the hotbed of the fire that influences concrete constructions. Monolithic constructions made of common concrete mixture are not able to be used after the influence of the temperature more than 700 º degrees because of the concrete strength reduction from the heating. The concrete mixture with boron carbide and silica fume gives the opportunity to build monolithic constructions that can be used in case of fires. Technical result of this mixture usage is the increasing of the fire resistance of the ferroconcrete constructions even in the situation of changing building cost.
Research of properties of Portland cement in the joint application of microsilica and hyperplasticizer EthacrylТМ HF
A.V. Voronova, E.A. Ashpalatova, V.M. Sultanova
It has been studied the influence of plasticizer based on polycarboxylate ether with a finely dispersed additive of technogenic character on the physical and technical properties of cement composite. The introduction of microsilica reduces the fluidity of the cement mixture, so it is advisable to use it in combination with the hyperplasticizing agent Ethacryl HF, which reduces the water requirement of the binder. Also, the stabilized aqueous suspensions of microsilica were obtained experimentally and their sedimentation properties were noted. Analysis of the results of mechanical tests for 7 days showed that the introduction of a complex of additives based on a polycarboxylate plasticizer and microsilica into cement binders in an amount of 0.05 and 5 %, as well as 0.9 and 30 %, respectively, increases the compressive strength by 31 %. The use of modifying additives promotes to reduce the water-binding ratio, intensify the hydration process and harden the cement composite. This leads to the formation of a dense and durable cement stone.
Zhukov A.I., Merzlyakov A.V., Gordina A.F., Polyanskikh I.S.
The article presents the results of the production of a ceramic composite material based on acid fluoride hydrides which is modified by microsilicasuspension. Using microsilicasuspension in the composition increases the physical and mechanical performance, including compression strength. This development result brings economic benefits due to the low cost of the binder, it also contribute to solve resource-saving problem as well as to improve the environment situation on the region through the utilization of acid fluoride dumps.
Studying of kinetics of gas generation of aluminum paste in the presence of the plasticizing additive on the basis of air of polycarboxylats
A.S. Karmanova, A.M. Cherepanov
The article considers the relevance of studies on the use of plasticizers, which are used in the production of heat-insulating autoclaved aerated concrete. Experiments were conducted to identify the optimum temperature of water and the optimal dosage of limestone, which provide maximum allocation of hydrogen from the concrete mixture. The article also presents the results of researches of influence of plasticizing additive on the pore formation of concrete mixtures. In addition, experiments were conducted to determine the optimal dosage of plasticizing additive, which can provide maximum allocation of hydrogen and the completeness of expansion.
Evaluation and ways to improve the quality of the raw batch for the production of solid ceramic bricks
The modern state of research in the field of production of ceramic materials based on low-grade clay raw materials with the use of additives - modifiers is considered. The possibility of improving the quality of the initial clay batch by introducing an additive of alkali-silicate cement, which improves the sinterability of the ceramic shard, is described.
A.D. Kurzanov, S.V. Leont’ev, E.P. Anferov, V.A. Shamanov
Non-autoclaved aerated concrete properties as a macroporous building material, depend on the macrostructure quality strongly. The macrostructure formation occurs at the stage of expansion and hardening of given composition mortar mix. The aerated concrete large-pore cellular structure formation mechanism, which involves two simultaneous processes: the expansion of mortar mix and hardening of the interporous space are presented in this article. Herewith, as the researchers note, when the structure formation mode deviate from the optimal product quality decreases up to a critical value. The low quality products formation (spoilage) can be due to several reasons, which are outlined in this work. The authors systematized prescription and technological factors influencing the material macrostructure formation. It was noted, at present the AC structure formation management is mainly provided by the adjustment of the initial composition; technological parameters, due to the insufficient study of their influence on the array expansion and hardening processes in modern technology given less attention. In conclusion, the study authors noted that the fast management of the structure formation processes will improve the products quality and reduce the spoilage number.
Influence of complex modifier based on Fulvec 100 and MuraplastFK-49 on the physic-technical properties of cement concrete
V.A.Novikova, A.F. Gordina, G.I. Iakovlev, I.A. Pudov
The object of research. Cement concrete modified with 1% plasticizer MuraplastFK-49. Purpose of research. Improvement physic-technical parameters of cement concrete by introducing a modifier Fulvec 100 and selection of rational composition of the modified concrete. Methods. The mobility of the concrete mix was determined according to GOST 10181-2014 "Concrete Mixtures. Test methods"; the average density was determined according to GOST 10181-2014 after 28 days; compressive strength was determined at 28 days according to GOST 10180-2012 "Concrete. Methods of determining strength on test specimens"; water resistance was determined by the method of "wet spots" in accordance with GOST 12730.5-84 "Concrete. Methods of determination of water resistance".IR-spectral methodhas been usedto determinephysic-chemical properties. Results. Rational composition of the concrete mixture modified Muraplast FK-49 and containing additive Fulvec 100 in the amount of 0.12% was carried out, which increases workability, density samples, the compressive strength and water resistance.
Determination of the properties of Portland cement in presence of silica fume and superplasticizer C-3
A.A. Spiridonova, A.V. Voronova, V.M. Sultanova
In this article, the problems of the influence of chemical and mineral admixtures on the properties of cement binder are discussed. The main goal is the analysis of the studies of the properties of Portland cement with the introduction of microsilica and superplasticizer C-3. Tests were carried out to determine the fluidity of the microsilica slurry and its stratification, the water demand of silica fume and cement, and the strength of the composite binder for compression at day 7. When obtaining a slurry of microsilica with a content of NTFC and superplasticizer, it was determined that the acid leads to stratification of the suspension and the superplasticizer to homogeneous system of its solid phase. During the tests to determine water demand and compressive strength of cement, it was found that its characteristics improved as a result of the interaction of additives, namely, to increase the strength, reduce water consumption, increase strength, etc.
V.M. Yakimov, D.R. Nugumanov, V.M. Latypov
In modern individual construction there are a number of problems that increase the cost and speed of erection. Three-layer expanded polystyrene concrete panels WALLSSAVING solve the problem of both the speed of erecting a residential individual building and its cost. The object of the study was an individual building in the Novo-Troevka settlement of the Republic of Bashkortostan, in which the technical condition of the WALLSSEVING polystyrene concrete panels was examined. The individual building was built in 2012, and the research was carried out in 2016. The building does not have a roof, walls insulation, a floor attic floor device, internal walls and external cladding. The construction was carried out specifically to study the weather resistance of WALLSEWING panels in the climatic conditions of the central zone of the Russian Federation. By results of researches it is established, that polystyrene concrete panels have enough high weather resistance and can be recommended to mass application.